Olive Tree in Palestine


The olive tree is viewed as one of the principle crops in Palestine. In excess of 10 million olive trees are planted in a region of in excess of 900 thousand sections of land that comprise half of the developed territory, generally in mountains. Contrasted with other natural product trees, this tree is the most across the board comprising 80% of the region allocated for productive trees. The olive tree is one of the seven sorts of organic product that the sacred land was honored by. The Lord has said ” stokes from a blessed olive tree neither eastern nor western”. (Meneley, 2014)

Notwithstanding their representative importance, olives are a fundamental wellspring of pay for around 80,000 Palestinian families. As per UN figures, around 48% of the horticultural land in the West Bank and Gaza is planted with olive trees. Olive trees represent 70% of natural product generation in Palestine and contribute around 14% to the Palestinian economy. 93% of the olive reap is utilized for olive oil creation while the rest is utilized for olive cleanser, table olives and pickles. A significant part of the olive creation is for nearby utilization with a modest quantity of olives being sent out principally to Jordan. With the developing enthusiasm for natural nourishment and reasonable exchange, Palestinian olives are presently additionally arriving at European and North American markets. (Shahwan, 2019)

History of olive tree:

Olive trees have been developed in the locale for a large number of years, with some proof of olive forests and olive oil advancements dating to the Chalcolithic time frame, between 3600–3300 BCE. Later in the Bronze Age, olive organic products were generally exchanged as appeared by the Uluburun wreck, which may have been conveying an olive shipment from Palestine. (Karkar, 2010)

Olives and olive oil had a noteworthy job in the entirety of the significant religions which created in the area. In the Jewish sacred texts, olives were viewed as a major aspect of the endowments of the Guaranteed land and were an image of flourishing. In the New Confirmation, the Mount of Olives has a significant job and the blessing with oil is a piece of Christian and Islamic strict practice.

In the period somewhere in the range of 1700 and 1900, the region around Nablus had created to be the significant zone for olive generation, and the olive oil was utilized in lieu of cash. The oil was put away in profound wells in the ground in the city and encompassing towns which was then utilized by shippers to make installments.

By the late 19 century, money crops in the district were by and large quickly extended to the degree that by 1914 there were 475 thousand dunam of olive forests (about 47.5 thousand hectares or 112 thousand sections of land) over the territory that is presently Israel and the Palestinian regions.  In the late Hassock time frame before the Primary Universal War, olive oil delivered close to Nablus was difficult to send out because of its generally high causticity, significant expense and constrained time span of usability. During the English Order period, generation of olives dramatically inbufferd from the 1920s to the 1940s. (Abufarha, 2008)

After the control of Palestine, Israeli powers focused on olive trees as an essential type of land obtaining and started to remove Palestinian olive trees in 1967, with an expected 830,000 olive trees evacuated somewhere in the range of 1967 and 2009. (Qutub, et al. 2010)

The olive gather was the essential wellspring of pay for Palestinians during the principal Intifada and was so fundamental for the Palestinian people group that open establishments, colleges, and government funded schools shut for the olive season so whatever number individuals as would be prudent could help with the collect. In 2014, UNESCO assigned Battir as a World Heritage site in view of its rural essentialness as its olive generation describes the scene through broad rural patios, water springs, old water system frameworks, human-settlement stays, olive presses, and a notable center. (The Guardian, 2012)

Presently, olive oil is a basic fare for Palestinians in the West Bank. Showcasing expert Robert Massoud states, “There is next to no Palestinians can send out yet olive oil. This reliance on olive oil sends out is broad all through the West Bank to the point that, to most locals, olive oil speaks to monetary security. (Qutub, et al. 2010)

Olive trees convey in excess of a financial criticalness in the lives of Palestinians. They are not simply like any another trees, they are emblematic of Palestinians’ connection to their property. Since the trees are draft-safe and develop under poor soil conditions, they speak to Palestinian obstruction and versatility. The way that olive trees live and prove to be fruitful for a large number of years is parallel to Palestinian history and progression on the land. Palestinians are glad for their olive trees; they deal with them with care and appreciation. Palestine has a portion of the world’s most established olive trees, going back to 4,000 years. A few families have trees that have been passed down to them for ages and the olive collect season in October bears a socio-social significance where families meet up to reap olive trees remembering that their ancestors and moms had watched out for similar trees quite a long while prior. (Shahwan, 2019)


Olive trees are viewed just like a significant segment of customary Palestinian cultivating life, with a few ages of families assembling to reap the olives for two months from mid-September. The reap season is frequently connected with festivity for these families, and family and neighborhood network festivities are sorted out with customary Palestinian people music and moving. As olive development is a critical part of Palestinian culture, the removing of olive trees by Israeli pioneers is a noticeable purpose of worry in Palestinian culture. Artist Mourid Barghouti portrays olive trees as “the character card that needn’t bother with stamps or photographs and whose legitimacy doesn’t terminate with the demise of the proprietor” and “with every olive tree removed by Israeli bulldozers, a family tree of Palestinian laborers tumbles from the divider. Strictly, “the Blessed Books allude all the more regularly to the vine and the olive tree. (Karkar, 2010)

The Present of Olive Tree:

Consistently, Palestinian farmers have made their living from olive development and olive oil creation; 80 percent of developed land in the West Bank and Gaza is planted with olive trees.1 In the West Bank alone, nearly 100,000 families are reliant on olive deals. Today, the olive gather gives Palestinian farmers anyplace somewhere in the range of 25 and 50 percent of their yearly salary, and as the financial emergency extends, the reap accommodates numerous their essential methods for endurance. (Ecologist, 2015)

In any case, regardless of the hardships, it is the merriments and conventions that go with the long stretches of gathering that have held Palestinian people group together and are, truth be told, an exhibition of their responsibility for land that no occupation can stifle aside from by the destruction of Palestinian culture itself. Under an old law from the Footrest time, Israel guarantees as state property land that has been “deserted” and left uncultivated for a time of four years, and this land is then typically apportioned to Israeli pioneers. Obviously, the land has not been deliberately relinquished. As a result of Israel’s conclusion arrangement, which forces the most draconian confinements on development, Palestinian farmers can’t arrive at their farming grounds to tend and gather their harvests. In addition to the fact that permits are required to move about in their very own country, yet farmers are compelled to utilize elective courses that must be consulted by walking or by jackass on the grounds that around 70 percent of these elective courses, those associated with primary or sidestep streets have been shut down by the Israeli armed force with solid squares and discard. (Middle East Monitor, 2016)

Furthermore, presently, for “security reasons,” a divider is being assembled that will for all time separate Palestinian families from their farmlands, aside from the entryways that permit access at specific occasions, however usually, at the impulse of Israeli fighters who may not go up to open them. This makes all year upkeep of farmers’ harvests incredibly troublesome, if certainly feasible. Henceforth the “relinquishment” of land that Israel uses to legitimize its territory robbery. Since 1967, the Israeli military and unlawful pioneers have wrecked more than 1 million olive trees, guaranteeing that stone hurlers and shooters hole up behind them to assault the pilgrims. This is a credible contention, in light of the fact that these trees develop somewhere inside A Palestinian area where no Israeli pilgrim or fighter ought to be regardless. Yet, Israel is determined to appropriating even the last remnants of land left to the Palestinians thus chooses not to see any strategies utilized by pilgrims and officers the same to threaten the farmers from their homesteads and yields, regardless of whether that implies annihilating their territory. Farmers are continually under danger of being beaten and took shots at, having their water supplies debased (effectively rare, on the grounds that 85 percent of sustainable water assets go to the pioneers and Israel), their olive forests burnt, and their olive trees removed. (Ecologist, 2015)

On a bigger scale, the Israeli military gets the bulldozers to remove trees in the method for the “security wall’s” course and where they obstruct the improvement of foundation important to support the illicit settlements. A portion of these compromised trees are 700 to 1,000 years of age are as yet delivering olives. These valuable trees are being supplanted by streets, sewerage, power, running water, and broadcast communications systems, Israeli military garrison huts, preparing regions, mechanical domains, and industrial facilities, prompting gigantic raid of the earth. In the event that Israel has its direction, neither the trees nor the Palestinians who have thought about them will endure the uncouth ethnic and ecological purging of Palestine. (Middle East Monitor, 2016)

Challenges faced the olive tree cultivation in Palestine:

1. Permissions

Palestinian farmers face a few difficulties in keeping up their olive trees before they are collected. On the off chance that the land where the olives are planted lies in Zone C, 60% of the West Bank, which as per Oslo is under full Israeli control, the farmers need licenses from Israeli specialists to get to their property and to watch out for their trees. A similar guideline applies to those farmers whose grounds are in the “buffer zone” i.e the zone between the Green Line and the Detachment Divider. (Abufarha, 2008)

In Gaza, the security “buffer zone” expands well past 600 meters from the Gaza-Israel Green Line, taking up 30% of horticultural land. Further, farmers are not ready to get to the land 1.5 km into Gaza from the security line due to Israeli shelling, shooting and attacks. OCHA figures demonstrate that 7,300 dunums of land with olives along the fence have been decimated during Israeli military tasks. Further, Palestinian famers in Gaza are disheartened from replanting their olive trees for dread that they would be crushed in Israeli attacks and for dread that they may be hit by “notice shots”. (The Guardian, 2012)

In any case, the grant framework is by and large rather discretionary. There are no unmistakable arrangements of prerequisites the Palestinian candidates must satisfy to get the license. In the wake of having demonstrated authoritative reports of proprietorship and passing the “security” check, the license may be given to just the individual under whose name the land is enlisted with nobody else from the family permitted to get to the land. This turns into an issue since land possession has a place with the entire family regardless of whether the land enlistment is under the name of one of the relatives. Moreover, constraining the quantity of individuals who can work the land additionally influences agrarian productivity which thusly influences the olive produce and financial in buffers from it later on. (Shahwan, 2019)

Further, when licenses are given, they are frequently given for a present moment and should be reestablished, each time with no assurance that it will be recharged. As indicated by UN sources, 42% of uses for licenses to get to olive forests behind the Divider in 2011 and 39% in 2010 were denied. On the off chance that a relative is politically dynamic as well as has been kept (during shows for instance) everybody in the family may be denied grants. Henceforth, the grant framework is utilized to pressure Palestinians into relinquishing protection from the Occupation.

At the point when grants are given particularly to those whose grounds are in the ‘buffer zone’ or close to settlements, the farmers need to go through horticultural checkpoints to get to their trees. These checkpoints are regularly opened at specific times each year and for a couple of hours daily, constraining Palestinian farmers from filling in as much as they see fit which later likewise decides their produce. All in all, in light of the fact that uncultivated land is bound to be reallocated by Israel as state land and on the grounds that the grant framework and the rural checkpoints direct the sort and measure of composts, tractors, vehicles and different materials, a few farmers have been compelled to return to planting olive trees and depending on them for their pay regardless of whether their property is helpful for different kinds of natural product. Since olive trees can endure in any event, when not very much taken consideration, they fill in as a method for holding land proprietorship and give the fundamental wellspring of salary for Palestinian farmers. (Ecologist, 2015)

2. Settlers assaults, financial expenses and absence of components for lawful review

Another developing challenge confronting Palestinian farmers is assaults by pioneers. The time of 2017, UNOCHA revealed that in excess of 7,500 olive trees were wrecked among January and mid-October. Assaults by pilgrims have expanded by 39% from the year 2016-2017 and by 315% from 2007-2017. Also, these assaults shoot up during the olive collect season where Palestinian farmers become focuses as they reap their olives. While a portion of these assaults are submitted under the name of sticker price. i.e discipline of Palestinians for Israeli court requested and implemented expulsion of stations, the greater part of the assaults including sticker prices radiate from basic contempt, prejudice towards Palestinians and Zionist ideological cases to the land. In the expressions of the leader of the pioneers battle base camp in Yitzhar settlement (as recorded by B’Tselem), assaults on Palestinians is a presentation of good citizenship that was expected to enable the police to implement the arranging and building laws in the zone on Palestinians. (The Guardian, 2012)

Generally speaking, around 2.5 million trees, 33% of which are olive trees, are accepted to have been evacuated since 1967. Assessing the normal yearly profitability of an olive tree to be 70 kilos and the cost of olive seeds 1.103 USD/Kilo, Applied Exploration Foundation Jerusalem appraises that the Palestinian economy has lost around 55,133,602 USD since 1967 to 2009. (Qutub, et al. 2010)

3. The Shortage of Grumbling and Grievance system

Most of the grumblings against such assaults are not truly researched by the police or the military. Just one out of the 162 protests with respect to pilgrim assaults on Palestinian olive trees revealed by Yesh Commotion, an Israeli NGO since 2005 has prompted prosecution of a suspect. Israeli human rights bunch B’Tselem and different gatherings have likewise announced that Israeli security powers are not conveyed ahead of time to ensure Palestinians in zones of risk and neither do they secure Palestinians when pilgrims assault. Indeed, intermittently, Israeli warriors put more limitation on Palestinians as opposed to pioneers when showdowns emerge. (Meneley, 2014)


According to the importance of the olive tree on the political, economic, cultural, heritage and other life aspects for many Palestinians, this tree is standing against the Israeli practices toward up-rooting it from all the lands related to Palestinians. Thus and during the significant collecting season, one can locate a varied blend of Middle Easterner specialists, and a huge number of volunteers who originate from various pieces of the nation, the US and Europe to help in the olive reap. Numerous internationals, and Palestinians the same, accept that their quality keeps up a peaceful atmosphere.

The olive reap is a convention as old as Palestine, and paints a wonderful story of the connection between the individuals and their property. Olive trees endure the hardest conditions and develop their underlying foundations profoundly into the earth, which they call home. For a huge number of years, these trees have remained as an image of obstruction, firm despite seemingly insurmountable opposition of nature; like the Palestinians themselves, who are standing firm against every one of the difficulties of occupation and putting stock in the expressions of Mahmoud Darwish: “We have on this land what makes life worth living.”


Abufarha, Nasser. (2008). Land of Symbols: Cactus, Poppies, Orange and Olive Trees and Palestine. Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power. 15 (3): 343–368. doi:10.1080/10702890802073274.

Ecologist. (2015). “Destruction of Palestinian olive trees is a monstrous crime”. 7 Nov 2015. Retrieved 3/12/2019.

Karkar S. (2010) The Olive Trees of Palestine Weep. In: Cook W.A. (eds) The Plight of the Palestinians: A Long History of Destruction. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.. Springer. pp. 51–53.. Retrieved in 2/12/2019. From: https://doi.org/10.1057/9780230107922_6.

Meneley, Anne. (2014). The Accidental Pilgrims: Olive Pickers in Palestine. Religion and Society: Advances in Research. 5: 186–199. Retrieved from: DOI: 10.3167/arrs.2014.050112

Middle East Monitor. (2016). “Israel uproots olive trees in Qalqilya to build settler road”. 9 May 2016. Retrieved 3/12/2019.

Qutub, M; Ali, S; Mutawea, M; et al. (2010). Characterization of the Main Palestinian olive cultivars and olive oil. Paltrade. Retrieved in: 2/12/2019. From: https://www.accademiaolivoeolio.com/img2/file/first-edition-manual-characterisation-of-the-main-palestinian-cultivars-and-olive-oil_201806191123452_43v3n75e3p4rotvp0hn08y1qe.pdf.

Shahwan, N. (2019). Palestinian olive harvest season: A symbol of resistance. Daily Sabah, OP-ED, Retrieved from: https://www.dailysabah.com/op-ed/2019/11/16/palestinian-olive-harvest-season-a-symbol-of-resistance

The Guardian. (2012). “Israel urged to protect West Bank olive trees after settler attacks”. 15 Oct 2012. Retrieved in 2/12/2019.

Floura and Fauna of Palestine & Israel

  • First Domestication of Plants , our ancestors had rich plants
  • Nature of Palestine & Israel Very beautiful
  • Plants are not only used for Food but also for Medicine purposes
  • in pharmacy most of the medicines comes from plants and also most treatments for cancer are taken from plants
  • Plants are very good for the ECO system and Diversity
  • many things in local culture specially in Palestine it is much related to the local sayings of farmers – حرث
  • Modern science in the 19th Century
  • First Zionist Institution in the Holy land was Agriculture School
  • some of the Arabs that studied the plants in the Holy land such as Tawfic Canaan and he was a medical doctor and he used to look for plants used by the bedouins as medicine and he tried to write about them and publish about them
  • E.H Plamer, Hilma Granqvist, Grace M . Crawford , A.moore , karen Seger , shelag weir
  • Baraket El Qamh – the blessing of the Coin was simple shapes as form of blessing
  • Oldest wheat was domesticated in 9500 years BC was in the Land of Canaan
  • Elevation,climate, geology , soil , geography , topography all relate to the varieties of the plants and animals of that area
  • There are four categories fighto geographical zones , one of them mediteranean zone
  • Four Categories the Coastal one, in summer very dry and in the winter good rain, some of them are بلوط و بطم و زعرور و اميعة و قطلب و شجر زتون
  • Mediteranean Tree also شجرة الميس we can find it in Al Aqsa Compound
  • The other Irano Turanian and Saharo Arabian another 2 zones
  • Ethipoian/sudanese zone , we find it like places in jericho and Al-Aujeh
  • Wild Plants mixed plants many of african origin
  • in jericho was very large sugar plantation and also balsam and date palms
  • Rose of jericho very interesting Anastatica – when it dry it become like a ball then the wind move it to another place
  • The Reason Jericho is named jericho because it is the city of the moon and also from fragments it smells good
  • Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
  • Zatar is very good medicine plant and for the diet in Palestinians
  • Sage = مرمية , very health for healing wounds and for headaches specially the fresh sage
  • ghar leaf , very useful plant , very good for cooking and wild plants
  • Edible products : fruits, nuts, seeds, leaves , flowers, oil and gum
  • Non- Food Products: Gums and resins, fuelwood, charcoal, timber, oil for fuel , fruits and bark
  • leafs we can eat : نعنع و خس
  • in the early times of car manufacturing these used rubber from plants
  • السماق = they make from it chicken spices
  • Romans planted wines in hebron , it was one of the best place to produce wine after Islamic Conquest they stopped using it for Wine , when they have excess from it they make syrup and resins
  • you can tell the age of the tree by the width of the tree , but there are variables if the tree is in fertile place it will be more so it need to be determined in particular inhabit, for example you need to measure it this year then measure it the next year then you take the total width and calculate how old the tree is
  • Gladiolus Italicus – سيف الغراب from these they made the dyes
  • pyrus comes from انجاص – Syriaca from syria
  • خرو ب karoub – very good to drink, دبس , the powder is used as subtitute as powder or caco
  • hothorn – زعرور – why thorns because it have thorns on it , دبس و تطلي
  • Fixed nitrogen – leucaena
  • Pistacia Palestina – بطم , and the branches are red
  • loquat اسكيدنيا
  • tree of haven – invasive species
  • Wild Relatives and Economic Potential – عكوب و حماض
  • Economic Potential Plants – الغار و كزبرة و الخروع
  • castor oil very interesting use of it , paint it on white paper and leave it it will collect the small insects very interesting
  • orchids السحلبيات are endangered species , they die because of insects die with the use of chemical insect killers because those insects fertile the orchids and human descrutction taking these plants for food and other reasons
  • زنبق , because people cut it and give to others as gifts
  • اللوف الفلسطيني – is poisonous
  • Old and Holy Trees خروب العقبة و قيقب عين قينيا
  • Sycamore Tree in jericho – الجميزة
  • Mount of Olives – Garden of Gettsemane
  • Threats to Plant biodiversity – Humans interference and the killing of insects , overgreazing, burning the trees, collecting the wild plants in large quantities , Climate Change ,

Reptiles of Israel & Palestine – 23-10-2019

  • Reptiles Have Blood Copper instead of Iron that is why it is blue or greenish
  • All Reptiles Lay Eggs , outside or inside
  • Most of the Reptiles have sensors like crocodiles in there teeth
  • Crocodile For example can control the Heart Beats of his heart to help him hunt at one time then another time stay lower
  • Crocodile have 2 chambers in his heart while humans have 4, other kind of reptiles have 3
  • In Reptiles Heat make you have males more than females , for example Alligators at 31 all females, 31.9 develop an equal, and at 32-35 all males
  • How Climate Change can affect these species? It could be all males/females area’s that is why they use incubators to control near 50/50
  • Turtle is the one that live in water, Tortoise that live on the land
  • Testudo Graeca very common in the Holy land
  • We Have Fresh Water Turtles in many places in the West Bank & Israel
  • Lizards intentionally let there tails go so they can run away from there predators and they have the ability to regenerate and not all the same
  • the Lizards walk on walls because they have on there hands شفاطات
  • Eggs of Reptiles if green or blue it is rotten, rest is good
  • The Reptiles stand on there 4 legs because the heat – and also they camouflage because there colors very similar to there nature
  • Rat snake is semi poision snake if it bite any human it not going to kill directly but it will have vomits and other things
  • Attack and Defensive mechanism used in poisonous snakes
  • Fangs in the Front of the mouth it is poisonous the ones in the back are not poisonous
  • We have Two Kinds of Poision , one Neuro الاعصاب , other kind of Poision is محلل نسيج
  • Snakes move just by touching few places of the body on the sand so it doesn’t touch much of the sand so it doesn’t get much heat and be burnt from the extreme heat
  • Amphibians – برماءيات
  • amphibians have cabinets inside there body to keep there skins wet or to use it to run away from attack, some poisionious in the skin but in pales tine we don’t have any poisonous
  • only male frogs can make voices for territories or mating

Fauna and Flora of Palestine 16-10-2019 Dr. Mazin Qumsiyeh

Dr. Mazin Qumsiyeh Lecture At Bethlehem Bible College with Dr. Mazin Qumsiyeh

  • Exclusion and Inclusions – > is basically defining something while disregarding everything that this things is not for example if you define a table as something we put things on , we can logically argue that a chair can have something put on , same applies for microwaves , however the latter two chair and microwave are not tables, so we should include everything that defines as a table while excluding everything that does not
  • Perma culutre is Eco-agriculture , it is completely natural no chemical uses and completely depend on Land,water and Sun, it is also form of agriculture that take care of environment and take care of biodiversity and protect agriculture diversity
  • Omnivore’s are not just mammals, there are birds also that eat both, an example human
  • Bird have 147 Million ancestor year old it had a Tale and it also had teeth not like birds of today, they look more like reptiles , so it was a stage between birds and reptiles , why too many birds and dinasous have been extincted? because they couldn’t regulate there body temperatures while birds did , tourists interested to know about the Types and Characteristics, Class Evis like class mammalia have certain characteristics , one of them are the Feathers they originally from scales , they also have the key bone in chest for the muscle to connect while the bird stretch to fly, if there is no bones there is no movements, the third characteristics if you break the bone it is empty because it is light not dense like other animals like rabbit, so it can easier fly , fourth characteristics are peaks, they feed through them , and the shape is about what they eat , for example the sun flower bird have very thin peak so it can suck out the nuctar
  • The Legs of the birds are important they have different functions and orientations, they started as reptiles with five fingers , chickens have 4 fingers
  • the Bird have extra Air sacks in it is body, it need more energy that is why it need lots of oxygen
  • Birds that eat sea water fish , they have to get rid of the salt, they have salt glance to get rid of the salt
  • another characteristics found differently in different birds are the eyes, it is much different than human eyes, for example eagle can have zoom in zoom out to see rabbit kilo meter far
  • sometimes the birds circle because the hot air rises
  • Gliding means to fly in hot air
  • The Wing shape is very important, an evolution through natural selection
  • the Tale Features how the animal hunts, some use to stand on it for balance, for example the wood picker
  • The Reason for egg shells getting spots, because they getting less calcium which results to be weaker , it is getting more acid the rain water because of the results in the Environment, there is glan inside the bird that the bird glean it like glue , the whiter the egg the healthier the egg, the more spotted the egg the less healthier
  • Birds migrate very large distances because they are used to migrate on tictonic plates when it was much smaller distance and till today they still do it same way when the tictonic plates are bit further
  • We find some birds that are very common in palestine in europe and asia but when you go to south africa or australia you find different birds, it is bit about the region
  • in Palestine it is very dramatic we have four area’s in Palestine same as we know them, coastal, ridge mountains, jordan valley and transjordan mountains
  • Palestine sun bird, Bolbol , Kazan ( wig tail) some famous palestinian birds
  • Birds in Palestine are resident Birds and there is summer Visitors, there is Migrant Birds, there is Winter Visitors, Vagrant Birds / Accidental Birds
  • Residential Birds they live here all year, they don’t migrate , like the sun bird , domestic sparrow , bolbol , pigeon, hawk
  • Summer Visitors come between February and September , they usually come young and go back to there countries india or europe , they include griffin volchuer , sonunu
  • We have many vigrant birds that pass through palestine, they pass twice , in spring and fall , one of them storks , usually in august and September, African paliqans
  • winter visitors like shaffs and other small birds, they come during the winter and they they during the winter for a month or two months
  • accidental birds which is very usual, some are brought here by humans such as the mina bird, also the green parrots which is tropical birds
  • نعاميات ostrage , the ostrich went extinct in palestine, last one was killed 150 years ago , but they were released back and also there is farms in Jericho and dar Salah
  • ostrich brain is the size of the walnut , the skull structure of the ostrich is still more primitive like other birds
  • الغطاسات we don’t have them in the west bank only in Sea and in gaza
  • الانفقنويات – sea weeds they eat
  • البجعيات they live in hula lake, and lake Tiberius
  • القلقيات – they eat worms and other insects from the grounds they called the cattle eagirts or eaters you also see them in other countires at the top of the buffalos as the same order
  • النحاميات – flamingo order, you see them pink color and in thousands , the pink is infection of particular fungis , they born white and later they develop this color
  • Order of gese الوزيات – ducks and gese and related
  • Falconiformes – الصقور
  • Galliformes – الدجاحيات , one of them chicker and turkey’s , in the US and england they called it turkey because they thought it came from turkey , we called it romy because we thought it is originally from ROME , other countries call it the Indian because they thought it came from India , Origins of Turkey Central America
  • Gruiformes الكركيات –
  • الزقزقيات – they eat fish
  • القطا
  • الحمام – pigeons and doves we have many species about 4 speices of pigeons and 6 species of Doves
  • الببغاوات – not native species they are foreign
  • الوقواقيات – the rynick is a bird that can turn it is head 360 degree’s
  • البوم – Owls they live near mar Saba and the surroundings of bethlehem it eat insects
  • The Owl swallow the whole mouse or bird , they don’t take pieces the Owl , they diguest them and then spit out the bones or what is left of them
  • Owl Food that is left undigested is then spit out through the mouth ( we call this pallets) , this is how we discovered what they eat along the years
  • السبد – سمامات
  • الشقرقيات – الهدهد –

Mammals 2-10-2019 by Dr Mazin Qumsieh


  • Mammals we Differentiate them based on skulls
  • We Differentiate Mammals based on Lactation ( رضاعة) and Hair and they also sweat
  • There is Actually Egg Laying Mammals
  • In Palestine we don’t have Egg laying Mammals or Marsupials ( Pouched Mammals ) but we have other eutherian mammals
  • Eutherian Mammals We Also call them placenta mammals because they feed there babies inside there placenta mammals
  • First Palestinian Biologist is Dr. Sana Atallah
  • Mammals and birds Regulate there Temperatures for example humans always 37 , if weather outside is 40 our body stay the same 37 , on the other hand things like fish they don’t control there body temperatures
  • the Teeth is very important to know about, they tell us what the animal eat
  • Carnivore it means animal that eat meat
  • Palestinian Ghazal Doesn’t Shed its antlers or horns
  • Insectivore means it is an animal that eats insects
  • Herbivore means it eats plants that is why there teeth looks like grinders that is why it have flat structure , also it have many kinds
  • Frugivores it means they eat fruits
  • Omnivores it eats both plants and Meat
  • Pisicovers – they eat fish and swallow it direct with those teeth like dolphins
  • Stomach and Digestive System it adapt what the animal eats, The Cow for example have very large Digestive structure because plants very hard to Diguest and take longer time that is why they are long
  • Cecoum is bacterial storage area and in humans we don’t need it anymore our ancestors it was beneficial for them when they used to depend more on eating plants before they started hunting
  • smaller you are , less surface area you have, the bigger you are the less surface area, and if you want to regulate your body temperature , the smaller you are the more difficult
  • Palestinian Bird is the Humming Bird it moves very fast
  • One of the Interesting Mammals are Bats , they are not birds and between the fingers we have some skin
  • Dolphins and Bats Echo locate for example they send sound and it come back to them as echo it is also that is how they developed the sonar
  • most of the Bat Noise we as humans can’t hear it, human ears are one of the weakest in the Mammals , Fox and dogs have much better hearing
  • Bats have system of receiving (ears )
  • in Palestine we have 24 species of Bats , they all eat meat expect for one Bat his name Egyptian Fruit Bat
  • Horse Shoes Bats they look like Horse Shoes
  • Bats stay in Caves and Old houses mostly, they hunt and go out at night and hunt at night for insects, and birds during the Day for insects , Insects are very rich in nitrogen , there waste is very rich for very good fertile
  • Bats in Palestine getting less and less, because the use of chemicals to kill bats and also to kill insects
  • Animals of the holy land are mentioned in the Bible and Quran many times , for example it is mentioned the hair it is not allowed to eat,
  • Hare = Wild Rabbit nearly
  • Carnivora in palestine consist of 5 families with total till today 18 surviving species
  • Family Canidate like the wolf the jackal, the fox …
  • also jackal mentioned in the Bible and Isiah and Jeremiah
  • The Family Felidae = The Cats Family, we have very few species in palestine , there is about five or six species in palestine
  • Family hyaenidae only one species in Palestine , it is called striped Hyena
  • Lifespan of hyena , they live in groups and they live up to 25 years on average
  • Family mustelidae – they include several species in palestine and we have two species of badgers and several types of weasels and otters in this family also they live in water – they eat fish and frogs , you can find them in wadi al zarka and in Galilee
  • All mammals started with five toes, but for some mammals started to reduce for example like horses they became one instead of 5 toes, for rhinoceros they became 3 , Hippopotamus on four , on deer,sheep and cows for example they have 2 toes
  • Order Artiodactyla – two toes, the Bovidaee family , Gazella ‘s and Oryx
  • Oryx have been extincted from palestine but Israel Have brought it back from Gulf Area and they are grown back again , Ibex = جدي
  • Gazelle and Ibex have been brought as gifts and have been seen on Egyptian carvings so it date more than 3000 or 4000 B.C.E
  • There is 3 species in Palestine of Gazelle , they are in danger and need to be protected , also it is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible the Gazelle is expressly permitted as food
  • There have been Wild Donkey in Palestine and current domesticated donkey is originally from the Wild One
  • Wild Hare – الارنب البري
  • Pinnipedia like Seals are sea lions , in Palestine only seen in Mediterranean coast
  • Biggest group of mammals we have are the rodenia – قوارض
  • in palestine we have 7 families of rodenia and more than 50 species – النيص منهم
  • Order Rodenia in Palestine there is about 15 speices – جربوع
  • Squirrels have been extincted from Palestine since 150 years ago and they used to be very important and very good for the forest , eco system and biodiversity since they bury the seeds and they go back to tree’s


We are mammals, we humans are mammals, the animals are much nicer than humans in palestine area, they didn’t kill any humans since the past ten years,

Origins of Humans how we evoloved?
How the Rift vallery Evolved?
How animals were domesticated and when they were domesticated?


A Visit on 18-9-2019 to Palestine Museum of Natural History – Small Tour By Dr. Mazin Qumsiyeh

Who is Dr. Mazin Qumsiyeh?

Professor Mazin Qumsiyeh teaches and does research at Bethlehem, Birzeit Universities and also the Bible College in Bethlehem. He previously served on the faculties of the University of Tennessee, Duke, and Yale Universities.

Some of the Key Priorities Subjects that Palestinian Researches should focus on ?

  • Health
  • Agricultural
  • Environmental
  • Education
  • Manufacturing

History of Local Studies on Palestinian Area’s

  • 19th Century: Europeans on short trips in Palestine (E.G Tristram ) with Taxonomists describing many species
  • 20th Century: Bodenheimer, Atallah , Qumsiyeh, Haas, Werner Etc…
  • 21th Century : You 🙂

Some of the Achivments of Palestine Museum of Natural History

  • Published More than 20 Scientific Researches in the First two years.
  • Teaching from the Early School till High School through work and garden
  • Change in Community through development and sharing with communities like Eco-Farming with Local Farmers
  • Protection of the Environment

Respect According to Dr. Mazin Qumsiyeh

  • First Respect our Selves that we can change our Circumstances
  • Respect Others
  • Respect the Environment

Recommendations by Dr. Mazin About Research

  • Early Learning of Students to Encourge them to read and critical Thinking, Questioning there surrounding and exploring
  • Develop Curriculum and Activities Extracurricular in Schools
  • Develop Curriculum and Activities Extracurricular in High-Schools

Focus The Researches and Development on the needs of the Community specially in Health, Environment, Agriculture and Education

  • Permaculture
  • Biodiversity
  • Alternative Energy
  • Human Impact on Environment
  • Innovative Education

Universities should participate in Local Communities through transferring of knowledge that have been acquired to them through research and to be active in all fields not only in Learning.

This Museum Caught my attention with many things as im new student of fauna and Flora with this very small space of land there is hundreds of Plant Species all over the place which is quite interesting, over hundred bird and most likely thousands of insects.

Which is also Very Interesting to teach and show children about our Environment and how we can preserve it for future generations and also interestingly they had a children exploration playground and many permaculture facilities.

References: Dr. Mazin Qumsiyeh