The Crusaders in Bethlehem
Bethlehem was occupied by the Crusades, on the columns of nativity church we see on the columns and Coat of Arms, it was found about a hundred year ago, The Crusaders gave a new look to the Town, they took all Bethlehem Governorate, they changed much of the architecture of the nativity church.
Near the Attryum of Saint Jerome many Crusader Marks and there is also a Crusader Convent, 25th December 110 Baldwin 1st was crowned at the Church of the Nativity as the first king of Jerusalem, relating to Bethlehem, the Birth, the Joy and the Birth of New King Baldwin the 1st.
Bethlehem became a patriarch and then becoming an Episcopal seat and Diocesan center.
Crusaders Built Two Watch Towers for the Nativity Church, And all the walls are painted and decorated with Mosaic with very high detail and quality and gold canvas.
On the 4th of July 1187, Bethlehem became under the Ayyubid conquer, The Mamluks 1260-1516, The Fall of Acre in 1291.
During the Mamluk Area it was not so good times for the Nativity Church it was much neglected, Franciscans 1209 the Custody of the Holy land, they originate from Saint Francis.
The Franciscans in Bethlehem
The Franciscans started in 1209, their wear symbolizes humbleness, They consist of Three Orders, the Franciscans are the largest religious order of the Catholic Denomination.
St. Francis of Assisi, he came from saint Francis the Assisi, he was much talking about evangelical poverty, and to focus on charity and devolution to human Jesus and follow Jesus example, he and Saint Catherine of Siena are the patron saints of Italy.
To Follow the teachers of our Lord Jesus Christ and to walk in his footsteps, in 1207 that Francis felt that call to a life of preaching, penance and total poverty, and later in 1219, they established the order.
The Famous Event in 1219: The Historical Meeting between Sultan melee el Kamel and Saint Francis in Egypt, and they entered a dialogue with the person who was generally viewed as the enemy of the western world, although he did not convert the sultan was impressed and let Francis continue on his way to the holy land.
Custodia of the Holy land, The Name Custody of the holy land, its main purpose to protect the Holy Places in the holy land in the name of all Christianity.
in 1333 through the meditation of Franciscans, they bought the Area the Upper Room ( Mount Zion ) from the Sultan of Egypt, as well as the right to hold religious services at the holy sepulcher, they decided that the Franciscans should exercise these rights on behalf of the Christian World.
The Cenacle was the first place that was acquired by the Franciscan Custdoy between 1333 and 1337, and this was done by efforts of King Report and Queen of Naples (Sinica), after difficult negotiations.
in 1342 Pope Clement VI approved the decision of the royal family of Naples with a bill, thereby officially establishing the custody of the holy land.
1847 First Latin Patriarch was established and the seminar in Beit Jala City was Established as well.
The Franciscans in Bethlehem in 1347 in a monastery for Augustinian canons, From the Ayybid Period, it was the Franciscans who were responsible for the Religious Latin Rites in Bethlehem, after 1950 they started arabizing the Church.
Renovation of the Nativity Church in Bethlehem City
Fra Giovanni Tomacelli in 1479 , I was possible to rebuild the roof structure of the Byzantine Church, the Work cost was provided by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy, and the lead was donated by King Edward IV of England, and the Wood from Larch, in about 1440-1470, and It was 40-60 meter long, and they transported from Europe to Bethlehem, from Venice it was shipped to the port of Jaffa then overland to Bethlehem.
HandiCrafts in Bethlehem
Among the most important economic activities are local handicraft products made from olive wood and mother of pearl, The Art of intaglio and working with mother of pearl and encouraged the opening of many workshops, and the teaching of these techniques can be traced back to the establishment of a school 1347, in 1586 Belgian pilgrim dates to the 16th century, they make crowns and small crosses from olive, cedar, and other woods.
The Teaching of these techniques can be traced back to the establishment of a school in 1347 that combined both theoretical and practical establishments.