Bethlehem Town of David, Crusaders, Franciscans, Renovation, and Handicrafts

The Crusaders in Bethlehem

Bethlehem was occupied by the Crusades, on the columns of nativity church we see on the columns and Coat of Arms, it was found about a hundred year ago, The Crusaders gave a new look to the Town, they took all Bethlehem Governorate, they changed much of the architecture of the nativity church.

Near the Attryum of Saint Jerome many Crusader Marks and there is also a Crusader Convent, 25th December 110 Baldwin 1st was crowned at the Church of the Nativity as the first king of Jerusalem, relating to Bethlehem, the Birth, the Joy and the Birth of New King Baldwin the 1st.

Bethlehem became a patriarch and then becoming an Episcopal seat and Diocesan center.

Crusaders Built Two Watch Towers for the Nativity Church, And all the walls are painted and decorated with Mosaic with very high detail and quality and gold canvas.

On the 4th of July 1187, Bethlehem became under the Ayyubid conquer, The Mamluks 1260-1516, The Fall of Acre in 1291.

During the Mamluk Area it was not so good times for the Nativity Church it was much neglected, Franciscans 1209 the Custody of the Holy land, they originate from Saint Francis.

The Franciscans in Bethlehem

The Franciscans started in 1209, their wear symbolizes humbleness, They consist of Three Orders, the Franciscans are the largest religious order of the Catholic Denomination.

St. Francis of Assisi, he came from saint Francis the Assisi, he was much talking about evangelical poverty, and to focus on charity and devolution to human Jesus and follow Jesus example, he and Saint Catherine of Siena are the patron saints of Italy.

To Follow the teachers of our Lord Jesus Christ and to walk in his footsteps, in 1207 that Francis felt that call to a life of preaching, penance and total poverty, and later in 1219, they established the order.

The Famous Event in 1219: The Historical Meeting between Sultan melee el Kamel and Saint Francis in Egypt, and they entered a dialogue with the person who was generally viewed as the enemy of the western world, although he did not convert the sultan was impressed and let Francis continue on his way to the holy land.

Custodia of the Holy land, The Name Custody of the holy land, its main purpose to protect the Holy Places in the holy land in the name of all Christianity.

in 1333 through the meditation of Franciscans, they bought the Area the Upper Room ( Mount Zion ) from the Sultan of Egypt, as well as the right to hold religious services at the holy sepulcher, they decided that the Franciscans should exercise these rights on behalf of the Christian World.

The Cenacle was the first place that was acquired by the Franciscan Custdoy between 1333 and 1337, and this was done by efforts of King Report and Queen of Naples (Sinica), after difficult negotiations.

in 1342 Pope Clement VI approved the decision of the royal family of Naples with a bill, thereby officially establishing the custody of the holy land.

1847 First Latin Patriarch was established and the seminar in Beit Jala City was Established as well.

The Franciscans in Bethlehem in 1347 in a monastery for Augustinian canons, From the Ayybid Period, it was the Franciscans who were responsible for the Religious Latin Rites in Bethlehem, after 1950 they started arabizing the Church.

Renovation of the Nativity Church in Bethlehem City

Fra Giovanni Tomacelli in 1479 , I was possible to rebuild the roof structure of the Byzantine Church, the Work cost was provided by Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy, and the lead was donated by King Edward IV of England, and the Wood from Larch, in about 1440-1470, and It was 40-60 meter long, and they transported from Europe to Bethlehem, from Venice it was shipped to the port of Jaffa then overland to Bethlehem.

HandiCrafts in Bethlehem

Among the most important economic activities are local handicraft products made from olive wood and mother of pearl, The Art of intaglio and working with mother of pearl and encouraged the opening of many workshops, and the teaching of these techniques can be traced back to the establishment of a school 1347, in 1586 Belgian pilgrim dates to the 16th century, they make crowns and small crosses from olive, cedar, and other woods.

The Teaching of these techniques can be traced back to the establishment of a school in 1347 that combined both theoretical and practical establishments.

Stone Age of Palestine & Israel

The Old Stone Age in Palestine was first Explored by Dorthy Garrard, we can start with the Homo erectus when they traveled from Africa c. 1,400,000 BC: Homo Erectus immigrated from Africa and settled in Tel Ubeidiya cave (oldest site discovered in Palestine, located 3 km south the sea of galilee ).
The Archeological Remains found goes back to even more than 1.7 million years were discovered in the excavations with more than 60 years of soil, this includes some of the oldest remains outside of Africa and with thousands of ancient stone tools, and also found large horns from a species of extinct bovid that is located in Israel Museum at the moment, Al – Ubaydiyya was Palestinian Arab Village and have been depopulated in 1948 and its remains are still visible on the Tell.

c. 1,400,000 BC: Homo Erectus immigrated from Africa and settled in Tel Ubeidiya cave (oldest site discovered in Palestine, located 3 km south the sea of galilee ).

The Natufian Culture is a Late Epipaleolithic culture that existed Between 13,000 BC till 7550 BC, according to other sources 10500-8500 Natufian hunter-gatherer groups form a permanent settlement that would come to be known as Jericho. Natufian was the first to experiment with Agriculture.

Natufians are the ones who founded Jericho Today The Tel of Jericho, and very close by in Jordan about 14,000 Years old site where is the oldest evidence of Bread-Making and about 13,000 Before Present where they found Beer in Mount Carmel near Haifa in Israel.

8th millennium (c. 8000 BC): introduction of Agriculture, Sedentism: where they started to settle in one location for a long time and develop civilization, and oldest defense system in the world (Jericho).

6th millennium (5500 BC) using of pottery (Hence, Pre Pottery Neolithic 8000-5500 BC and Pottery Neolithic 5500-4500 BC), we can see that there have been lots of Domesticated animals in this Era and new architectural Styles used in Pottery.

We can Categorize Stone Age in Israel and Palestine as follows:

  • Lower paleolithic 400,000-250,000 BP
  • Middle paleolithic. 250,000–45,000 BP
  • Upper paleolithic 45,000 BCE and 20,500 BCE
  • Epipaleolithic period 18,000–12,500 BCE
  • Neolithic period 4300–3300 BCE
  • Chalcolithic period 4,800 BCE

These Times when new discoveries are found they have redefined again all the time, Oldest one as we said earlier outside of Africa is Tell-Ubeidiya in the Jordan rift valley, also another site at this time of Age around Daughters of Jacob Bridge, both these could go to the Acheulean Culture and many elephant bones have been found as well as tools made of Basalt and Flint.

Both of the Neanderthals and homo-sapiens from those periods discovered in Israel we are not sure if they co-existed together or one replaced the other, we can’t tell much since no writing existed at that time we can only tell from the remaining and the Dating technologies we have such as the Carbon Dating, these groups mostly focused on hunting and gathering plants, their hunts were mostly the Gazelle, the Aurochs and the Persian Fallow deer.

Bethlehem History The Town Church of the nativity

The Catholic Action Club in Bethlehem Belong to the patriarchal Latin catholic church

A very important institution in Bethlehem, now it is very interesting story, once upon a time it was summer resort to Hanna Mansour, in summer he used to go to that place and have it as summer resort as it reminds us of Ramallah that we like to go there during summer times, but the Franciscans they buy the property, later on, it is cultural, entertainment and sport center for youth people in Bethlehem it also contain cinema and is nearly the only remaining Cinema in Bethlehem.

Some of them Bethlehem Cinema Where Al Sa’adeh Mall now and Al Amal Cinema it was called, and this was the romantic street of Bethlehem where people buy ice cream, specially lama family played a huge role in Cinema.

Ibrahim and Bader al Alama, and Also Augustin Lama he made national anthem for Jordan, From the catholic action club you can see the Bethlehem beautiful Action Club.

As you enter the Catholic Club the fences in the middle you see the mosaic.

The Star Street

The Star street which I would like to call the Star street, most likely they took this way and seen the star, Joseph and Mary over going 170 Kilo meters over three days they reached Bethlehem at night, Bethlehem was based all its development all its stories on this Street that have lots of memories for the Bethlehemites and their ancestors, many parts of this street today we don’t know about it, the same street we have the ORthodox Christmas, Catholic Christmas, and even the Armenian Christmas, when you get married you go through this road if your Bethlehemites, if you die also same street you will take, so this street associates with all festivals and events, happiness and sadness and even political problems such as first intifada all the memories from this street, and even the 1860 the Bethlehem Bread place, and the only place there where you learn how to paint icons is there as well, also from this street we remember jabra Ibrahim jabra and abdala komarji he was well known for medicine and he was famous till you reach Damascus.

in Terms of Archeteigure 1700 the Ottoman Era, from the Arches inside it was before tanzimat , after tanzimat the ottoman reformation it was from the Arch and outside, the Arch of Bethlehem if you were in the 19th century in Bethlehem you will be Shami, which mean Syrian from the south of Syria, so much influenced us and we were very close to there culture and very similar to heritage as well, we also had chieftains, clan Chietfans that want to make everything peaceful and also have connection with authorities, if you look at the Star street they all belong to 7 Christian clans of Bethlehem and one Muslim clan of Bethlehem.

Techniques of Building most of them had Cross Arched Buildings, Bethlehem is the only city that has merged Between the Arabic and Western Cultures all of those because of the ottoman reformations, nearly all institutions we see today after tanzimat, a Wide range of shapes and details are apparent on numerous buildings if you see the Cross on the top it represent the Holy Trinity, Father-son and holy spirit, Bethlehem is well known for Olive Wood and mother of Pearl. that al Taramjeh clan was very famous with it, so they did olive wood carving and mother of pearl carvings, also Bethlehem was well known for The Stone and Limestone is wonderful carvings and can easily amaze you, the Stone was mix of White limestone and Red Limestone and the inscriptions would amaze you while walking these streets.

Bethlehem Had Master stone cutters over 500 craftsmen from the town were engaged in constructing mansions, governmental buildings and more. in 1908 more than 1000 Stonecutters were working in Jerusalem.

Saleh Jacob Morcos and Ibrahim Mariya where they worked in the restoration of Nativity Church also Khalil Musa Hazboun worked in the Patriarch convent in Jerusalem, Abdala Khalil Zablah worked in Al Ja’ar Palace, Ibrahim Mosa Nassar renovated Solomon’s Pool, so the Inhabitants of Star Street the local community we have to think about them, who were they and what they did?

We Speak about Two Kinds of Inhabitants are two of them Tarajmeh Clan and Herezat Clan, who were skilled in carvings Beads, possibly they were from European ancestors and they used to translate for the foreigners tarajmeh, so each one, the family have meaning.

The Carvings of Beads, Crucifixes, Models of the Church of the Nativity and of the Holy Sepulcher in Olivewood, when we think about it ” Hosh ” ” Hara” these are local Architecture words.

Concept: Al Hosh: is a disorganized housing unit that is inhabited by a certain family. Host Dieck, Hosh Mikel, Hosh Dabdoub, Hosh Abu Jarour, Hosh Nassar.

Hosh is Disorganised social unit appeared as continuous growth to match the needs of the family and particularly the extended family, Hosh is considered to be the main component of the 7 Clans of Bethlehem that forms the urban fabric of Bethlehem Old City.

The Hosh when you enter it there is always an Arch – Arch it means entering a host or private area, so always the Arch is a private Area, the Doors and windows at that time were very close and Bethlehem was very small nonetheless these quarters they are part of big extended family, more than one hosh’s make “HARA” , where group of families brings together,

Al Najajreh one of the Oldest Quarter of Bethlehem and Oldest people of Bethlehem many people believe they are ghassanid clans that came from najjran in Yemen in around 635 AD, it extends from behind omar’s mosque., Al Farahiyet about 600 AD which means joy people.

Anatreh means the Brave – Such as Canawati, freij , Bandak, most famous is Elias Freij is the first minister of Toursim and Antiquities.

Only Muslim clan originally from Bethlehem is Fawaghreh.

Hosh Al Siryan that had settled in Bethlehem during the 19th and 20th century, and they came here before and during World War I because of the massacres, Hosh Al Siryan have oldest scripture place there 1739 AD.

King David Wells in Bethlehem History and Archaeology

Samuel First Was the first mention of David Wells, Bethlehem Enters history with the Figure of David, He was born there as mentioned in (1 Samuel 16) to an Ephrathie Family who had lived there for many generations ( descendant of Ruth ) ( Ruth 1-4 )

There he has been chosen to be the King of Israel, he was beloved there, Daoud = David means he is the loved one, but the jealousy of Saul made him run away from place to place, and he faced another problem called the philistines, now there is a place called in Kila, people asked David please liberate us from the Philistines, so what he did and his warriors they destroyed all the place and got rid of the Philistines, as consequence the philistines put siege on Bethlehem the home of David the town of David.

Now in Adullam was built upon a hilltop overlooking the valley of Elah, south of Bet Shemesh , now when Bethlehem was occupied he was in the Cave of Adullam, that was his stronghold, David was always beloved all his people were there, David gathered later 400 men with a grievance against Saul, Now David Had 400 and then he had the 30 and then the three, not only three but THE three.

Story of the Well

Now as the story say the Three had names Josheb Basshebeth , was chief of the three, he raised his spear against eight hundred and he managed to kill them, Eleazar son of Dodai he was strong and stood against the philistines, and Son of the Agee the Hararite the third one.

According to Samuel 23 it says that David was missing Bethlehem, and they went the Three to him to that cave and he was craving for some water from Bethlehem, so what these three did they went they sacrificed their lives and they decided to go to Bethlehem, and actually they escaped all the garrisons by the Philistines and they took small amount of water and gave it to David and then he refused to drink it and poured it on the ground.

David Refuses to drink the water, instead, he poured it out before Yahweh Arguing that it was the blood of the men who had risked their lives.

The Bible Verse and Tombs About King David

During the Harvest Time, so David Actually Felt thirsty when his childhood with his father Jesse he was remembering when he used to get the water and he started to miss his childhood and the past, at the cave of Adullam at his stronghold, David longed for water and said ” oh that someone would get me a drink of water from the well near the gate of Bethlehem, So the three mighty warriors broke through the Philistine lines, drew water from the Well near the Gate of Bethlehem, and Carried it Back to David, but he refused to drink it, instead, he poured it out before the Lord, far be it from me the lord to do this, He said, is it not the blood of men who went at the risk of their lives? and David would not drink it.

The Wells we have in Bethlehem goes back to the Roman Era, The East of these sisters was discovered in 1895 a mosaic pavement of a church of the 5th or 6th century with Greek inscription, and it had Psalm 118:20, open me to the gates of justice, also Arcosolium Tombs was found there, and it can have 6-8 people there, same as we see in Saint Jerome Cave.

Catacombs are a subterranean cemetery of galleries with recesses for tombs but on David Wells only some Arcosolium, The Cemetry was Christian

1 Kings 2:10 – Then David rested with his ancestors and was buried in the City of David, some translations say it is Town and some others it is City, City most likely Jerusalem but Town it could be Bethlehem but we don’t have any archeological proofs about that.

1962 the Last Custody Excavations of David Wells where they found more Catacombs in that area.

From Judges to Kings

  • Eventually the Israelites they needed a King, all the people wanted a king they asked from God they wanted a King …it is something like tradition …like edom, moab they all have kings so why don’t we have king?
  • Samuel means God Hears , His mother hanneh , she always used to go into shilo and always requested that god will give her a son , now Samuel will be great he anoint king david and king sauel
  • According to Saint Mariam Bouadry the anointimend took david place in the carmelite monastery , according to the Catholics Mariam bouadry is palestinian catholic saint , there in carmel there is a cave where samuel anointed king david and it only opens once a year
  • he is Anointed one also Bethlehem and Jesus means the anointed one …anointed with the holy spirit
  • All elders of Israel met at Ramah to discuss the matters and they wanted a king like other kings , samuel will take them to mizpah – Tell el Nasbeh ( mizpah ) and they made a random spin and saul one, or we can say by a lot, family ot matrites was chosen and finally saul son of kish
  • Tell el Nasbeh is cananite city dates back to the bronze age, it is typical City State
  • The United Moarchy 1030-970 BC the United Kingdom of Israel at the time of Saul
  • Gibeah of Saul – Tell El Ful it was the first political capital of Israel
  • Gibeah means hill, The hill of Saul
  • The Battle at mishmash was fought between Israelites under jonathan son of Saul

The Rise of a Warrior King

  • Saul Relationship with Samuel have been cut after while because saul was taking the wrong path
  • a New King was sought and samuel went to the home of jesse ( David’s Father ) of Bethlehem and later anointed David
  • David A brave young warrior was from Bethlehem in Judah and the large tribal area in the south
  • Valley of Elah ( Haeila ) wadie es sunt – The Valley of Elah is a traingle shaped flat valley located on the western edge of the judah low hills
  • Haeila Valley in the route 375
  • Waddy of Elah have Terbinth Tree and Acacia Tree in the valley
  • This valley was an important corridor from the Coast Cities
  • Valley of Elah is the site of Battle between David and goliath
  • David later became a close friend of saul’s son jonathan , during the final decades of Saul’s troubled region, David began
  • Saul Vs David 1020-1011 BC
  • at one time david flew to Gath and became as follower of the philistine ruler Ashish , this ruler rewarded david the city of Ziklag where he stayed with them for more than 16 months – Ziklag could be in Tell Sharia according to excavations from 2016
  • at one point david marched with the philistines to aphek to make war on saul
  • Saul met the philistines at Gilboa where both he and his son jonathan were killed, saul committed a suicide , after giving him self a blow of mercy

Some Jewish, Roman and Byzantine History; it is complicated

  • After the Second Revolt Judea was deserted , the remnant of the Jewish population annihilated or exiled, and they were orphibited to enter Jerusalem
  • This Revolt was very harash on the romans and Hadrian
  • Was also very harsh on Bar Kobah also some called him Bar Koziba
  • The Four Holiest Jewish Cities in Judaisim , Jerusalem, Hebron, Tiberias and Safed – after the second Revolt
  • Hadrian Remove the province of Judeah and name it Palestina
  • Hadrian Changed the Temple area of Jerusalem to Temple of Jupiter
  • Hadrian Also removed all the Walls of Jerusalem and put Legion X in Jerusalem
  • Jerusalem : Aelia Capitolina – City founded in 135 AD by the Romans – Emperor Hadrian – Colonia means like colony
  • Colonia = Roman Settlement in conquered territory, Colonia something very high ranking in Roman Cities, and often named to the emperor or their family names , Aelia Capitolina This is the name of Jerusalem City
  • Aelius is the clan of Hadrian
  • Capitolina , Jupiter, Juna and Mierval the Capitolina the Three Triangle
  • Aeilia mentioned in the Truce between Omar Bin Khatab and Jerusalem Patriarch Siphranous
  • Constantine comes from Constant – the Steady – الثابت
  • Early Life of Constantine , his father name was constantinus and he was Ceaser at the time of emperor maximus
  • Queen Helena we always see her statue with cross
  • Father of Constantine Married two, Theodora and Helena , Helena wan’t from high ranking statues he married the wife of emperor maximus daughter
  • Milvian Bridge , waering a sign of a cross XP which means Christos , Messiah
  • Licinus is Constantine Brother in Law he took the Eastern one and Constantine took the Western Part of the Empire after the Milvian Bridge
  • 313 freedom of worship specially for Christians – Edict of Milan permanently established religious toleration for Christianity within the Roman Empire
  • Battle of Chrysopolis ( golden City ) in 324 Licinius was routed and constantine became sole emperor of Rome
  • in 330 Constantinople ont he site of Byzantium which has been Stronghold of Licinius
  • Queen Helena 3248 -328
  • Helena Greek from helen, which is derived from the root ( Light , Torch , Bright )
  • Helena Was about 80 years old of her death
  • Helena Birthplace is unkown, many places named after helena as helenapolis
  • Eusebius mention helena died at about 80 years old
  • The Kingdom of Tadmur Zenobia in 273 AD the Palmeria Empire
  • Nobilissima Femina Emperor Constantine used to call his mother similar to First lady these days, and she was granted much land around Rome, in Eusebius life of constantine it is mentioned that 312 constantine convinved his mother helena to become a Christian
  • Nativty Church, Holy Sepulcher Church, Ascension Church and Mamre Church in Hebron are the main churches
  • In the Icons if you see a lady with Cross it is most likely Helena
  • one of the stories one of the ladies was dead or sick when she put on the right cross she was healed

The Neighbors of Israel In the Ancient Time

  • The Neighbors of Israelites were Ammon, Edom, Moab, aram , Phoenician, Philistines, Cannanites
  • Ammonites the children of Ammon, Descendants of Ammon, son of Lot from his younger daughter, his daughter conceived a son, named bein-ammi aman today which also used to be called philadilphia and bein ammi means son of my people ( Philadelphia during the Hellenistic Period)
  • An ammonite woman, one of many foreigners taken into Israel’s King Solomon Harem, Was responsible for introduing the king to worship the ammonite God Malcom
  • in the 2nd Century BC they were defeated by Judas Maccabeus ( from the Maccabe’s )
  • They had war with the Israelite’s

Moab

  • Moab Kingdom ancient palestine located east of the dead sea in what is now west central jordan
  • nearly all behind the Dead Sea the Moab Mountains
  • when your Bethlehem or Jericho or other cities in the Bethlehem Governance all the Mountains you will see behind the dead sea are the Mountains of Moab
  • It was bounded by Edom and hte land of the amorites , the moabites were closely related to the Israelite’s, and they were two Frequently in conflict
  • Moab are descendants of LOT
  • The Mesha Stele is the Longest iron age inscription ever found
  • The Stele whose story pararelle with the books of Kings provides invaluable information on the moabite language and the political relationship between moab and Israel during the 9th Century BC
  • The stone bears an inscription of Mesha king of moab and about the 9th Century BC

  • Herod Origins from Edom , his mother is Nabatian and his father is from Edom

Aram and Arameans

Israel Enters The Land of Canaan

  • After the conquest of Joshua 1250 BC to the land of Canaan many cities were never conquered
  • In this new land there remained some outposts of the with old Canaanite enclaves their own religion, traditions and culture.
  • These Israelites are Tribal System, bedouins and they belive in one god Yahweh , and they worship other idols during the times of the Judges
  • Tribe and Society the Israelite Tribes seems to have offered a very different social model from the Canaanite City-States
  • Tribes such as Simeon, Judah, Gad , Ephraim, Benjamin, Dan , Gad , Manasseh
  • Whereas the Latter ( The Cannanite City States) were ruled by Kings, and there was a sharp distinction between rich and poor, the different workers within those societies the Israelite Tribes were more Egalitarian
  • The Israelite Tribes were More egalitarian engaged in a largely agricultural economy, growing wheat and Barely, raising sheep, goats and cattle, and carrying for their vineyards and olive groves.
  • So we can tell the difference between the Israelite Cities and Cananite Cities that in the Cananite there is huge social distinction between rich and poor while Israelite all people are equal at that time
  • Egalitarian Society = متساوي
  • Israel at that time it was Tribal-Chieftain City States that offered very different social model from the Canaanite City-States
  • Decisions were made by Local Elders or Judges, There were no armies , defense was the responsibility of anyone who could hold a sword.
  • Levitical Cities – after the conquest of the land and along with the allocation of territory to teh tribes, certain cities are desginated for the use of the levites
  • The Levitical Cities were 48 Cities in Ancient Israel set aside for the Tribe of Levi,
  • There were Cities of Refuge – Six of the Cities that were given to the Levites were designated as Cities of Refuge from the 48 Cities

The Biblical Era Abraham Heads West C. 2000 BC Intermediate Bronze age – Middle Bronze Age

When Abraham Stories in the Old Testament Happend ?
Between 2200 – 2000 BC

Where Abraham is Mentioned in the Bible ?
Genesis 12-50

Where Abraham Origins?
From UR (Tall Al Muqayyar ) with his Father Terah ( In Islam It is mentioned Azer )

What is the Original Name of Abraham?
Abram

Who was Called the Wandering Aramean? and what does it mean?
Abraham, Why wandering because he was living like nomad travling from one location to the other, so when we call Abraham as wadering Aramean it refer back to His homeland as Aramean , so he can be called Hebrew as Social Designation Refering to his statues without land and also as an Israelite because he is the Ancestral father of the people who to becalled the Sons of Israel

What is the Terminology Behind the name Aram?
From Harami, Arami, Aramija or ahlamu, meaning bandits and another explaintion says it mean high lands in contrast with the lands of Canaan the Low Lands

What is the Hebrew Term for Mesopotamia ?
aram-naharaim – Aram for the The Two Rivers , which mean between the two rivers which are Tigris and Euphrates and also Called Paddan-Aram , in the Fields of Aram, Abraham Origins there we know it from Biblical Evidences when Job and Issac needed Wives they returned there.

What do you know About Ur?
Was very important City in Sumeria about the Year 2000 BC and it was originally on the euphrates which is modern site Tel Muqqayyar some 300m southeast of Modern Baghdad , even though only mentioned once in the Bible it was very important trading links with Arabian Gulf and Persian Gulf, the Site was occupied about 4500 BC but it was only about 2600-25000 BC when it florished under its first King , it remained important till last Babylonian Sovereign but then gradually sank into oblivion.

When Abraham Left UR?
When he was about 77 Years OLD with his nephew LOT, his wife sara and thousands of his Servants they went to the land of Canaan but stopped at HARAN and setteled there

Meaning of the Following:
Abram : A High Father
Abraham: Father of Many
Sarai : My Lady, My Princess
Sarah: Noblewoman or a princess

Who is the Father of Abraham?
Terah

What Haran Means?
The Main Road that comes from Damascus and joins from Nneveh and Carchemish where it is now in Turkey where it is called Eshkiharran or Old Haran

Where First stop of Abraham in Land of Canon ?
He stopped in Schechem ( Tel Balata) by the Great Tree of Moreh ( probably Oak Tree ) – Page 33 TBC


The Romans 22-10-2019 with Haytham Dieck

  • Roman Period 63 – 324 AD
  • Pompey (106-48 BC ) Greated the 10 Cities Decapolis to protect him self from the napateans
  • Decapolis = Deca = Ten , Polis = City , as protecton from the napatians at that time
  • purpose of decapolis trade, defense and mutual protection
  • Scythopolis = Bisan only city in palestine that was part of the decapolis
  • Decapolis was the Roman Governor of Syria
  • Menippus of Gadara one of the philosophers
  • Antipatar procurator of Judea – Julius Ceaser gave him roman Citizenship, he had Herod as Governor of Galilee, and Phasal Governor of Jerusalem
  • Antipatar was poisoned by a jewish aristocrat
  • Partheans occupied palestine in 40-37 BC , the Hashmoneans stood with Parthians against herod
  • Herod’s originaite from Hero قصيدة البطل – hero chant
  • Another terminology could be arad herod from arad, which means tremble or be afraid
  • Cleopatra meaning Goddess who loves her father or cleopatra the father loving goddess
  • Cleopatra was in good relationship with Mark Anthony and he did give her many places on the coastal and in jericho rich oasis
  • Balsam and palm where perfumed manufactured , and also from balsam they can make herbs for medicine
  • King Herod Switch Allegiance to Augusts ( Mark Anthony )
  • Roman Citizen was spared more extreme forms of punishment and torture like Crucifixion
  • Palestine was divided by 5 Provinces in First Century, Galilee, Samaira, Judea, Perea and Idemia