So what is Proverbs All About?

The overarching theme f the book is, how to live in God’s World, The Fear of the Lord is the beginning of wisdom, and the knowledge of the holy one is understanding, Prov:10, Fear the Lord and shun evil Prov 3:7

Many things happen near the Gates, where the elderly wise sit near the gate, waiting for someone to ask them for advice, usually Cities have a negative image in the world today, when we talk about big cities, when we talk about las vegas, when cities evolved, when urbanization evolved cities started to sin more and more.

Fear of the World is the begging of wisdom as they say, as it is said in Prov 3:7, Fear of the Lord doesn’t mean terror but it means out of sincere respect, love, and obedience to God, It consolidates ancient Israel’s Experience-based convictions and offers believers of every generation practical advice on holy living.

Real Life Experiences connects with Proverbs and Authorship of Proverbs

It is Collection of catchy, memorable and timeless truth or basic values proven by previous generations, remember that Solomon asked God for wisdom instead of power and wealth, he was known to be the wisest men of the ancient world, there is no clear evidence that the book we have today is the same that Solomon author, it seems like it was collected version and for sure we have the later version of it.

Some evidence we have Solomon was the author of the book but NOT all of the book, The Scribes of King Hezekiah of Judah collected some of Solomon’s proverbs Prov 25:1, some scholars date the composition to the first millennium, with no specific dating.

The Contents of the Proverbs

remember the job was pessimistic about life, but unlike a job, it is usually optimistic about life, unlike job which grapples with the difficult issues of life and is usually pessimistic.

Wisdom is much more than intellectual information or head knowledge the instruction that we found in this book is based on the reverence and worship of Yahweh.

The Sayings of the Wise, it offers thirsty Sayings which have to add much common with the Egyptian document known as the instruction of amenemope 1200 BC.

The Fifth part is saying off and about two kings, agur son of jakeh and Lemuel, most probably they were Arabs or Arabian descents, the with part brings back the image of a wise woman/wife it is writing in an acrostic poetry style.

Old Testament with Yousif Khoury – Intro to Hebrew Bible II

What is the old testament what is the Hebrew bible, and the Jewish one, difference between the jewish old testament other than Christian old testament, Jewish to three parts, the Chrsistian Categorization of the old testament it divde into five parts, the five books of moses the historical books, the pottery and wisdom books and the major prophets and minor prophets, 66 the whole bible, but the whole old testament is 39, as we are done of five books of moses we come now to pottery literature and wisdom literature , but most of scholars agree on having them unified as one literature , it is called pottery and wisdom literature, the second part is the prophets which is divided into major prophets and minor prophets , the minor prophets include twelve prophets and twelve books.

You will see that some how the jewish old testament is different than the way we study in the Christian old testament but we will mix them up but mostly we will focus on the Christian divisions of the old testament.

it is about the base how god talk to his people through deterunomoy if you obey god you will receive the blessings if you obey god you will receive them but if you worship another god you will be curses, and this is we see all through the historical books.

We talked about Joshua entering the land and Joshua didn’t occupy the whole land, and later we talked about how the book of judges about the twelve ones all over Israel, about four hundred years of time, and about how twelve judges lived in cycle, the cycle starting from sin then oppression then crying out for god then redemption.

And if we remember how this cycle reflect the way how people think in history, history repeat it self and that is what we see later like in Saul and king david and later on in Solomon.

After the twelve judges they went to Samuel and asked him for King like all other kingdoms around them they had kings, so they asked for king, god didn’t like the request but he eventually approved it and gave them Saul.

Saul was a good in the first years of his kingship and later he sinned and later god Chosen David from the House of Jesse in Bethlehem to become King.

And we talked about the struggle and fighting between Saul and David, and the jealousy between Saul and then Saul went after David and he ran away.

Later Saul was killed and David Became the Official King , and David is man after God Heart, doesn’t mean he was perfect in fact when he asked god to build temple , god refused because he had bloody hands, later David with beethsheba he ran way and god cursed him with his son raping his sister and his son tried to take the throne from him, but later on god put him back on the throne and Solomon was chosen and later passed away.

Solomon comes a very powerful king and very strong economy for Israel and extends its borders to ephrates and Egypt, and we talked about the alliances with Kingdom of Israel and others, he made alliances with local neighbor’s kingdom.

Later Jerboham asked him to lower the taxes he asked from the Son of Solomon, later the two kingdoms was divided, ten tribes, kingdom of Israel and later on the Southern Kingdom, Kingdom of Judea, the first exile was 722 by the Assyrians.

The First one was 605 was first Babylon Exile of kings and Royals and the young professionals, the second one was the minor one 597 it was a response to revolution and not really that important and the third one the most important one when the temple was destroyed 586.

Most kings of northern kingdom were bad , but most of the southern kings of south kingdom were bad but very few were godly and good.

It is very important because all the future subjects that we going to talk about is written in this Era, the pslams all talk about David and Judah , how Judah is promenant city and how Mount of Zion is place where everybody should come here and worship God, and the Book of proverbs most of them made actually said by Solomon.

The Historical Conditions which scholars give them, major themes and Crisis, The First are Crisis of urbanization تحضر but when we are talking about crisis that happened in urbanization, because of the political system there were corruption, now if people have king they will have to give tax to the king which craze the potential of corruption then second kings need army where the army will come from the poor people, and third one he will take more ladies for himself, so it is mostly in an ethical issue to having a king, is the corruption ethical and financial that we see when it comes to urbanization, during the kingship of Solomon. But at the time of Solomon the sky rocketing with corruption began at that time and after his son everything was divided, but urbanization mostly start with David there is a kingdom we start seeing Jerusalem becoming an Urban center till the Destruction of Jerusalem, so it is mostly 450 years when David was around the first millennium.

Always the Israelites when they talked about the Sea always it was about Chaos and God the one who bring order to the Sea the chaos subdue Water, so they kept away from the Sea, while in the minor prophets jona is the first one who go the Sea, always we can see from the context they were terrified, even jona when he talked about the Sea as it is his dystanity to his death, tarshish in the Ancient word is the far end of the world, because at that time they thought the world is flat, it is like he will die, this is the end of the world this is the understanding of the sea, so most probably they stayed in the center and the ridge mountains only Elijah went to the Carmel mount that went to place near the Sea, but the sea never mentioned it always reflect chaos and sea is also before the creation .

So that is the Issue of urbanization the Corruption of Solomon and his dynasty but when it comes to the rest of the books, when we talk about major and minor prophets when we see respond from political issues like one of the prophets respond to king of Israel , other one to Kingdom of Judah, like jona was in Israel but somehow he prophecies about Judah, the Crisis of colonization , Syria is colonizing our land and taking us away form our God.

According to our Studies of the Hebrews we understand that God is territorial Land he is limited to the Temple Mount and to Jerusalem but here the question of the Crisis, if the assyrians and Babylonians were able to destroy Jerusalem and take us away then our God is weak, where Is god, what happens on the ground , happens in heaven.

But we see the ancient nature , the king was taken away to the Exile and people began to question the sovereignty of god so how can they trust a god, that lost control over the situation, and how could he allow this evil to happen to them  , the Deuteronomy was written after the Exile as it was the basic rule if we worship god and obey god and we live in that land and we shall prosper if we don’t , the land will be taken away from us .

At some time they edited there books the Israelites during many different era’s in the Old testament, book of jona is particular to the north kingdom so most likely 750 B.C , the book is most probably edited in 250 BC , which most likey have not been in 750 BC , so those books were edited because not the content was edited, the language and/or clarifications for the contemporary reader will understand, but when you edit the book it reflect the crises you are in.

Colonization is crisis , when people were exiled out of the country they lived In those crisis, where is our god, we have been defeated , because according to ancient Israelites he was the most powerful and they thought of God as political King and they were after god for the benefit of worshipping God for example, you will see that most of the time they focus on Jerusalem because it si the center of God presents but they didn’t commit to the law so they thought of God as magical charm they thought of God that way, if Jerusalem and god is not there that means an end for our Kingdom , god wanted to show them yes it is actually true but it is my way not your way.

David talks about when he run away and the psalms all about his experience and what he express in the book of psalms and then almost disappear like almost a legend in the past and we wish his days will come back, david was the perfect king if we look in the past but it couldn’t be really true, like the prophets also if god give him a promise he will rise up with David in the future he want to go back in history and be like David, the Israelites always backward to the future and look into the Past, for us in the eastern church traditions for example the world will be renewed and restored, if we embarrass all our heritage we will understand more how it is like in the old testament till these days same concept is how it is like in the old testament in our middle eastern community.

When we come to the New Testament it is always about Jesus as the son of David, the book of Kings we see many of the events that happened in the rest of the Old Testament happened in Kings and Chronicles which is known as the third kingdom book.

Samuel 1+2 then we have kings ending David and starting with Solomon, so total 3 kings and mostly less focus on Solomon but we also read about Solomon In proverbs and Ecclesiastes and psalms are mostly related or connected to Solomon, and most probably that Solomon wrote significant part of the psalms, and psalms we read about most likely inspired onward and dictated later by Solomon.

The auther evaluate of each king based on there monarchies, Jerusalem is the standard that is why we see many people criticize Israel and its kings because the capital supposed to be Israel.

Post Exile very few things mentioned at that time but most likely things were written at that time like jona book most likely after post exile, he is very critical of his nation but some of the books we will notice that half of it written before and later on written after like Isaiah , for example let us talk about pslams, we can notice that some of the books in the river of ephraites we sat and wept, so pslams written at time of David we sat and wept so it is defiantly written after .

Although at Solomon time it was the only time in history god filifilled his promise in Israel and he controlled all over the land.

The Divided Kingdom about the major and minor prophets mostly talking about this Era, the northern kingdom include ten tribes all of them were evil the capital were schekem and later samaria.

The Southern kingdom and Certain part of Benjamin , twenty kings , 8 of them were good and twelve were evil, and the capital was Jerusalem.

Northern Kingdom with political divisions Jerbohom, when prophet went to him and cut it into ten parts and prophecies the divided kingdom, he introduced the religious revelations about yahwesim.

The Southern kingdom saw the worship system as economy by itself, he introduced different religion so for him to have political independence for Israel from the rest of the kingdom he have to economic independence as well.

Bethel they started giving the offerings there, and attempts to provide alternative to Jerusalem temple, then we talking about Omri that try to give power in Israel, where it was extended to the territory of Moab, Misha Stella that talk about Omri and talk about the Northern Kingdom.

House of OMri used to refer to Israel as micha the king of Moab, in the Micha inscription he make Samaria his new Capital omri.

Akhab son of Omri was very bad king, he sized power in the northern kingdom and the story of Akhab he married Jezabail, after his father omri he married the princess of sydon, he introduced the worship of Baal in the Israelites History it was the biggest enemy of God.

If there is God for the Israelites that was the worst is Baal, Elijah also confront of the 450 prophets of Baal and challenge them, in the Kishon River.

Later on Ikhab and Jezabel tried to take over the vineyard of naboth , so jezebel wrote to people who swear that naboth cursed on god and the king, so they stoned him and killed him, so Akhab took his vaneyard and later wee see that Elijah confronted Akhab and jezebel was killed.

Northern kingdom the history of the northern kingdom , two kings hezkaih and Josaiah , because of the high regards the information they implemented in Jerusalem and in Judah, after period of peace between Israel and Judah, johash invaded Jerusalem , plundered the temple and took many hostages from the Samarians, it is part of the hate and bitternes between the people of Judah and Samartia, later on Israel enjoy some stability.

The Southern kingdom we can go forward and talk about the Good kings and bad kings and particular Hezekiah that was most important figure in the divided kingdom history specially the religious one, they were terrified from the Assyrians and he was like reformer and like Hezekiah tunnel when the Assyrians sieged Jerusalem.

The Theology of Exile , when we talked about Eden and the land, how the ancient people saw the univerise as the universe is god’s temple and it is reflecting in God creating the world, and then we have canaan as the second eden and then how they think of Jerusalem as the temple as manifestation of Eden again, so the univerise is always surrounded by the temple and also which equals eden, so whenever they are taking away from land they are taken away from Eden, but the sin is illustrated like Death , so leaving eden is Death, so the Exile for the Israelites is Death, so this is always in the back of their minds when writing the books and vision of the Future.

In the Chronicles we remember is the first commentary in the Bible because it summarize the kings , somehow certain parts it repeat the history , people from the exile exaggerate they talk about David the good king, they don’t mention bethseba, like david didn’t do anything like he was a perfect king , always elvate  the nationalstic spirit, talking about Eza and nehemaihah, when people coming back from the exile, Zerbabel first later Ezra then join Ezra nehemaiah.

They weren’t as glorious as the times of Solomon but they had some break from the Cirius.

The Question about colonization Is where is god, can god be defeated, so now in all the books god is defeated, where is god, now we read eza is returning to the land, now god is restoring his people, when people have been in the exile, we talked about Esther, according to the name Hadasah, Esther doesn’t mention god as he is absent he is not there , but he is working in history, miraculously esther becomes the queen and advice for her people to fast and pray for three days before she stand before the king and deliver the truth and later on the Israelites were saved and thousands of Persians become commited to the worship of Yahweh.

Explains The Crisis of Urbanization and Colonization for the Israelite’s – Yousif Khoury

Explains The Crisis of Urbanization and Colonization in the light of what you have learned Today 200/words minimum outline

Urbanization: When the civilization became urban there will be Commercial kingdom and trade routes and caravans and merchants with other local kingdoms and they will be exposed to other religions and pagan god’s practices.

We Can Start talking about Urbanization Crisis starting with the Corruption that will happen with the monarchy System, supposedly if people have king they will have to pay taxes to the king which craze the potential of corruption and secondly kings do need army where army will come obviously from the peasants or the poor people and the third one he will take more ladies and more women for himself and in eyes of god and the Israelite’s community and traditions this is sin and bad, so we can see the Ethical and Financial corruption that comes with urbanization during the kingship of Solomon for example, and also at times of Solomon it was sky rocketing with corruption and after his time everything was divided

Colonization is Crisis also to the Israelite’s, when people were exiled out of the Country they lived in those Crisis, and they were asking and wondering and looking for god, where is our God??! , we have been defeated, because according to ancient Israelites he was the most powerful and they thought of God as political king and they were after god for the benefit of worshipping God , for Example you will see that most of the time they focus on Jerusalem because it is the Center of God presence , but they didn’t commit to the law so they thought of God as magical charm and also they always thought Jerusalem is not there it also means god is not there which means the end of our Kingdom, god wanted to show them yes it is actually true but it is going to be done my way not your way.

1.What are some of the Common Characteristic of Hebrew Poetry? How does Biblical Poetry Differ from much of our Modern Poetry?

Parallelism, Synonymous Parallelism, Antithetic Parallelism, Synthetic Parallelism, meter and rhyme , Hebrew Poetry relies much more on meter than on rhyme, through rhyme sometimes does occur, and biblical poetry and Hebrew poetry use a variety of different metric styles while modern poetry both meter and rhyme play important roles, each line follows a certain meter or accent pattern and the last word of lines often rhyme.

2. How would you explain Parallelism to someone who never heard of it?

 It is a structure of thought (rather than external form like meter or rhyme) in which the writer balances a series of words so that patterns of deliberate contrast or intentional repetition appear.

The Historical Books

  • According to the Hebrew Bible: Joshua, Judges, Ruth , Samuel , Kings, Chronicles, Ezra-Nehemiah and Esther
  • The Timeline of historical books start from entering land of Canaan till the return from the Exile
  • Moses wasn’t allowed to Enter the Land By God
  • Deuteronomy serves as an introduction to the Historical Books – it is more like a summary

What kind of History is the Bible?

  • The Bible is more than a history book, it writes history from a decidedly religious perspective
  • Salvation History god’s relationship with his nation
  • prophetic History – it is more about time and space
  • As we can see the prophesies in old testament and prophets are not for predicting future but mostly about they talking with god and dealing with current situation and they should repent and follow the Law of god and only Worship God
  • Thelogical Themes of Joshua : The Faithfulness of God, The Holiness of God and Creation – Crossing the Red Sea, Liberation .
  • in The Book of Judges there are 12 Judges , one of them woman Deborah , The Era of Judges end with Samuel and Begins with the monarchy

Old Testament 28-10-2019

  • Very Important Question – Even Though Joseph was favored By Jacob, and Abraham Favored Issac over Ishmail, and Issac Favored Jacob Over Esu – so why Judah and his descendants and not joseph?
  • The Idea of Election carries with it two features: A Promise and a responsibility – God wanted Abraham to be a blessing but with this blessing with this promise comes a responsibility
  • A covenant is like an agreement very similar to contact, you keep your part and i keep mine
  • a biblical covenant refer to a relationship between a great and a lesser partner
  • Some Say also Covenant even if one part didn’t keep his part the other will keep it
  • all nations will be blessed with what? who is the seed of Abraham? Jesus
  • Biblical Covenants always Based on the initiative of god and also about implying something new Shield or protection and then it demands some kind of moral Ritual demands
  • Paul is the most important figure in Christianity after Jesus
  • Paul in the NT argues that Christians are the seed of Abraham, through Christ of course, and on that basis Christians See the OT and the Covenants as their own , and Christians Believe they are the Faithful and true descendants of Abraham
  • The Law is designed not to restrict Israel but to protect her from her self destructing Actions
  • Monotheism is all about one superior God
  • Care for the underprivileged many of the ten commandments is about other People and few of them about Relationship between human and god
  • J Document = Jehovah
  • E Document – Elohim
  • D Document = Deuteronomy encourages worshiping in Jerusalem and combines Yahweh and Elohim
  • Sermon = وعظة
  • P Document = was written because JED neglected the role of priests
  • the Sacrificial System in the Pentateuch is mostly from P
  • Around 400 BC JED and P were combined to form the Pentateuch as we know it

Old testament 21-10-2019 with Yousif khoury

  • The Universe is God’s Temple then it Go back to Eden where presense of God Manifest and Dwell Among Humans
  • The Shekinah is the Glory of God/Presence of God
  • Leviticous goes back to source from LEVI’s the Tribe of Priests
  • Numbers means census – the Counting
  • Numbers is About the Failure of Israel in mantaining her relationship in the Convent with God
  • There Were Egyptians who left with the Israelite’s during the Exodus Time
  • Hagar Delivered the Babi on the Lap of Sara
  • Deuteronomy is a series of Moses farewell speeches that he gave on the plains of Moab across the Jordan River.
  • It is a reminder of the Law and covenant, it is restating the Law
  • Deuteronomy Meaning Second Law or Copying or Repeating
  • Israelites when went out of Egypt they spoke Aramic
  • Genesis Describes the Beginnings of the universe and of God’s People
  • Exodus is about the salvation of God’s people who could not save themselves
  • Leviticus is a call for holiness as the only lifestyle possible for god’s people and only possible response to His grace
  • Numbers is a book of wanderings where Israel Suffer the Consequences of her Unbelief
  • Pharaoh is portrayed as a puppet in Exodus ,
  • The ten plagues again show god’s lordship over nature and circumstances
  • Some Call the Pentatuech , Man’s Journey Back to Eden, for the Christians they see it as the Driving Force that led to the Cross

Covenants in Ancient near East and in the P consist of
* A Historical Introduction
* A list of requirements
* Curses and Blessings
* Oath
* A Religious Ceremony to Celebrate the Cutting of the Convenant

Distinctive features about the Law
* Monotheism
* Care for the underprivileged (Widow, orphans and foreigners in the land)
* The Community Flavor or spirit

Pentateuch 8-10-2019

  • Pentateuch talk about many people that is very important to us,
  • What is the pentateuch it is the First Five books of the Hebrew Bible
  • Penta for Five , teuch is scroll ( Pentateuch Terminology )
  • Pentateuch are Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus سفر اللاويين , Numbers and Deuteronomy سفر التثنية.
  • Word Israel is not mentioned in the Pentateuch
  • in the OT it is known as book of law or the Book of the law of Moses
  • Pentateuch starts from the begging of Time till 1200 BC conquest of Canaan
  • From Genesis 12 onward it is all about Abraham Family one individual’s family and god grace into a powerful nation.
  • Genesis is greek word means the beginning
  • Pentateuch is like introduction to the OT
  • There are 3 Schools about the Pentateuch :
    1. literal description , 2. meta history ( it is not descriptive of history but theology ) it was written much much after the creation and many believe Moses wrote it , it was written in same style and writing for example they make it similar to the stories they knew or around them, like building the temple or other stories in there own version 3. figuratively رمزي
  • Torah Means instructions / Teaching
  • The Jews sees the Pentateuch as instructions for life
  • Many Similarities Between Pentateuch and Islamic Sharia – Both try to go much into each one life in detail
  • it is mentioned in Joshua 1:8 keep this book of the law always on your lips , meditate on it day and night, so that you may be careful to do everything written in it, then you will be prosperous and successful , Joshua 1:8
  • What is the Pentateuch About?
    The Books of Begging , Begging of Universe, Humanity,Sin and Israel
  • It is the Book of the people of God and for the People of God is the Pentateuch
  • Pentateuch is not Pure history or Historiography
  • Pentateuch is not a complete History of Israel , it is a book that traces the action of God toward and through Israel in History
  • Pentateuch Encourage Ancient Israelite’s to Believe in God
  • Genesis the Book of Origins of the World? no or maybe from your own theological prescriptive
  • Gen 1:11 there is a problem, sin and its effects on humanity and the whole world
  • from 12-15 The Begging of Redemption Story
  • Genesis Tells the Beginning of the World and of God’s People
  • It is about the Beginning of everything expect for God
  • Joseph Time and bury of Jacob is the end of genesis and before this Jacob give blessings to his sons specially judah and many say judah wrote
  • Joseph was described in the book of genesis and pharaoh, and the Joseph was biased with his family and treating his people very well at the expense of his own people
  • Christians See Exodus as equivalent to the cross
  • Levi = الاويين = Developed later to be as priest , the priests came from the Levites
  • In Leviticus it talks about Practice and sacrafices and offerings that Israel should present to God
  • Leviticus about how to live your life? when you live in Life style based on worship
  • Offerings as giving something , offering is much smaller , for example offerings like wheat,
  • Sacrifice is the Best of what you own, to sacrifice it , story of God sacrificing his own son
  • Male , Young and Perfect Sheep – have to sacrifice and prepare to sacrifice it at 6 months – same story about Jesus Lamb of God
  • Leviticus are Law’s for humans if you killed a man by mistake what you do? – you will find some similarities in this law and humarabi Law
  • Tabernacle – خيمة الاجتماع
  • The Sanctuary or Tent of Meeting or Tabernacle
  • Moses ask god for sign and he appear as column of Fire at night
  • Shekinah Means the Presence of God is there
  • Shekinah Place of Greatness
  • Outercourt – Tabernacle – Shekinah
  • Leviticus is about Ritual and Moral Purity
  • Exodus God Liberated and started relationship with Israel, in Leviticus focuses on how people can maintain this relationship

Explanation About Six things Differences Between Old and New in Past Lectures

In the Ancient Times – there is pattern – for example all patriarchs lied…
Pattern, people rest, they worship the lord, they get comfortable, they worship other Gods , god send other groups of people to persecute them, so there is pattern – on the other hand as modern people we think of time as past, modern and future

People As Individuals as part of community – people live in communities and act as communities and the community is source of life, but these days they act as one or individual .

WorldView: Compartmentally : something to god and something to us , for Ancient World if they didn’t have rain they worship they know this cause is spiritual for any trouble or problem – that there is something about the god they didn’t send us rain

Locate Hope and Security Presence : the ancient people they found security and hope in Presence – no mads they knew resources are limited so resources to them are not secure enough not something to hope in but for them what doesn’t run out is god for the Israelite they understand as long as god in our myths we have all the blessings of the Earth


  • Cain Lied to God
  • Abraham Lied – Phraoh asked about his wife
  • Issac Also Lied
  • Jacob Lied Also
  • Twelve Brothers Also Lied About Joseph

Reference : Teacher Youseif Khoury – Bible College

Transmissions and Translations of the Bible

Where the Word bible Comes from?
From Word biblia which means books, it is A collection of many books like a library

When Was the First Writings of the Bible Found of the Old Testament?
Many Scholars Different on this one , some believe it was 1500-1200 BCE and some Belive it was 800-600 BCE

Who Wrote and Copied the Old Testament ?
Scribes Wrote and Copied and it was the work of a community not a work of single person that is why no Authors of the Old Testament Books

How did they Write the Bible Writings?
The Earliest Biblical writings on Scrolls made from egyptian papyrus or on animal skins, and most likely all of them were initially written on scrolls.

What is a Codex?
Modern Print Book that is collection of papyrus or parchment papers that was folded and stitched into a codex which resembles our modern print book

What is Transmission?
It Means Text is Being Copied from one text to the other and sometimes Changed by the Scribes

What is Canonization?
The Process of Including Certain Books as Scripture and rejecting others is called Canonization.

What Canon Means?
Greek Word means Measuring Stick

What is the Masoretic Text (MT ) and the Masoretes?
Masoretes are Jewish Scribes who wrote those Texts and Most Biblical Scholars believe those Masoretic Text’s the most authentic and accurate versions of the Hebrew bible(Old testament) and they also added vowels to the hebrew originals

What is the Oldest Version of the Hebrew bible?
Masoretic Medival manuscript is codex leningrad, Dates back to 1009 CE

What is Vocalization?
It is writing in vowels , arose between 500-700 CE most likely influenced from the Arabs and Rise of Islam, Masoretic Scribes who had Vocalization are the most used in Christian Churches and Most Synagogues.

What is Septuagint?
It is Old Greek (OG) the oldest translation of the Hebrew Bible , Made in Alexandira Egypt for the use of the Greek Speaking Jewish Community, at first just the Torah then Rest of Biblical Books

What is the Difference Between Old Greek Texts and Masoretic Text ?
Many of OG translations from Hebrew Versions Different Than Sources of Masoretic Text that is why there is difference in Them , some are longer and some are shorter

What is Harmoize of the Bible Texts and Who created it?
A Christian Named Tatian invented harmonize to combine similar elements into one , and at same time translated them into Syriac .

When was the books of Matthew,Mark, Luke and John written?
Most likely between 75 and 100 CE , but it seems they have been based on earlier sources, either written or oral.

How many Languages the Bible have been translated to?
More than 2400 Languages

What Apostolic Authority Means?
Apostolic comes from the word apostle that have direct relationship to the twelve apostles, paul or one of the early christian leaders and if had any connection it means the text is determined to be sacred and authoritive in the religious sense

What is the Language of the Jews at the Time of Jesus Christ?
Aramic and it started from 5th Century BCE till 4th Century CE

What BCE Means and CE Means?
BCE = Before the Common ERA
CE = Common ERA

What Canon means?
List of Books that are considered Scripture for any group of people

What Canonization Means?
Process of deciding which books to be included and which are to be excluded in a canon

What Exegetes means?
Those who practice critical explanation or interpretation of the Bible

What is Syriac?
The Language Spoken by Jews & Christians from 4th till 8th Centuries CE

What is Torah / Pentateuch ?
The Five Books of Moses, Genesis , Exodus , Leviticus , Numbers and Deuteronomy

What is Translation?
The process of taking a word in one language and finding its equivalent in meaning in the word of another language.

Historical and Cultural Background – Old testament

Where did the Events of the OT-HB take place?
The Ancient Near East That constsist of Mesopotamia, Egypt and Palestine-Syria

What Mesopotamia Means and where the name come from or Origins of the name?
It means “Between the Rivers” and potamos meaning river , and the rivers are Euphrates and Tigris Rivers

What are the Most Famous Kingdoms that Ruled Mesopotamia and when they ruled it?
* Sumerians – 1st empire 2500 BC
* Akkadians – 2270 BC
* Amorites – 2000 BC
* Babylonian – 626-539 BC – Exile of the Jews 586 BC
* Assyrians – 8th century BC
* Persia 6th-4th BC

What are the Kingdoms of Egypt and How many and when they came to power?
* Old Kingdom 2700-2200 BC ( Pyramis )
* Middle Kingdom 2000-1700 BC ( Patriarchs )
* New Kingdom 1550-1100 BC ( Moses and Exodus)

What is the Hebrew Word for south?

What are the Sub-Regions of Palestine-Syria?
* The Coastal Plains
* The Ridge (Central Mountain Range)
* The Jordan Rift
* The Transjordanian Highlands


  • Mesopotamia is famous for not having any natural defenses, on the other hand we have Egypt that had Natural Defenses
  • Invention of Writing 3100 BC in mesopotamia

Introduction to the Old Testament – Hebrew Bible

What is the Bible?
* A Collection of Sacred Writings.
* It is God’s Written Word
* It is a Living Word
* It is inspired to dedicated people by God.

What is Ta Biblia?
The Bible – 66 Books

How many Parts Consists the Bible?
* Old Testament 39 Books
* New Testament 27 Books

Why it is Important to Study the Hebrew Bible ( Old Testament )
* Story of God Intervention in History
* Story of God’s Mission to redeem the World
* Special Revelation of God and His Nature
* it Makes 2/3 of the whole Bible ( Biblia )
* It is Story of God’s People

Why is it Referred to as Old? and what it means old testament?
Because to the Christians There is New Testament and this is the Old One, Also Meltio 180 C.E First to Call it Old Testament

Why some Call is the Hebrew Bible?
* It is Largely Written in Hebrew
* Sacred to the Hebrew People
* It is the Book of the Hebrews

What is the Tanakh ?
The Tanakah that consists of Torah(Pentateuch) & Navi’im and Ketuvim

How Many Books in the Old Testament?

How many Books in Hebrew Bible?

Why the Difference Between Hebrew Bible and Old Testament ?
* Twelve Minor Prophets are a Single Text in OT
* Arrangement of the Books
* OT Main Sections Book of Moses, The Prophets , the Writings
* HB Consts of : The Law, Historical Books, Wisdom Books and the Prophets

How the Bible/OT Books were Written?
* Dictation ( No Human Element – Supernatural Influence )
* Passive Inspiration ( only from god writer doesn’t participate of their style or personality )
* Dynamic Inspiration ( combination of God and Human Elements in the Writings )

Who wrote the Old Testament?
Scribes and Priests

When they Started Writing Old testament?
bout 950 BCE at the times of King Solomon who was king of Israel and it is golden Age.

When Tanakah Was Completely?
About 100 CE as reflected in a conference of Rabbis Meeting at Jamnia


  • Old Testmanet Books 39 For Protestant Book
  • Orthodox Old testament 51 and Catholic Old Testament 46
  • Bible for the Catholics – 73 Books
  • Orthodox Bible 81 Books