What is the
old testament what is the Hebrew bible, and the Jewish one, difference between
the jewish old testament other than Christian old testament, Jewish to three
parts, the Chrsistian Categorization of the old testament it divde into five
parts, the five books of moses the historical books, the pottery and wisdom
books and the major prophets and minor prophets, 66 the whole bible, but the
whole old testament is 39, as we are done of five books of moses we come now to
pottery literature and wisdom literature , but most of scholars agree on having
them unified as one literature , it is called pottery and wisdom literature,
the second part is the prophets which is divided into major prophets and minor
prophets , the minor prophets include twelve prophets and twelve books.
You will see
that some how the jewish old testament is different than the way we study in
the Christian old testament but we will mix them up but mostly we will focus on
the Christian divisions of the old testament.
it is about
the base how god talk to his people through deterunomoy if you obey god you
will receive the blessings if you obey god you will receive them but if you
worship another god you will be curses, and this is we see all through the
about Joshua entering the land and Joshua didn’t occupy the whole land, and
later we talked about how the book of judges about the twelve ones all over
Israel, about four hundred years of time, and about how twelve judges lived in
cycle, the cycle starting from sin then oppression then crying out for god then
And if we
remember how this cycle reflect the way how people think in history, history
repeat it self and that is what we see later like in Saul and king david and
later on in Solomon.
twelve judges they went to Samuel and asked him for King like all other
kingdoms around them they had kings, so they asked for king, god didn’t like
the request but he eventually approved it and gave them Saul.
Saul was a
good in the first years of his kingship and later he sinned and later god
Chosen David from the House of Jesse in Bethlehem to become King.
talked about the struggle and fighting between Saul and David, and the jealousy
between Saul and then Saul went after David and he ran away.
was killed and David Became the Official King , and David is man after God
Heart, doesn’t mean he was perfect in fact when he asked god to build temple ,
god refused because he had bloody hands, later David with beethsheba he ran way
and god cursed him with his son raping his sister and his son tried to take the
throne from him, but later on god put him back on the throne and Solomon was
chosen and later passed away.
comes a very powerful king and very strong economy for Israel and extends its
borders to ephrates and Egypt, and we talked about the alliances with Kingdom
of Israel and others, he made alliances with local neighbor’s kingdom.
Jerboham asked him to lower the taxes he asked from the Son of Solomon, later
the two kingdoms was divided, ten tribes, kingdom of Israel and later on the
Southern Kingdom, Kingdom of Judea, the first exile was 722 by the Assyrians.
one was 605 was first Babylon Exile of kings and Royals and the young
professionals, the second one was the minor one 597 it was a response to
revolution and not really that important and the third one the most important
one when the temple was destroyed 586.
of northern kingdom were bad , but most of the southern kings of south kingdom
were bad but very few were godly and good.
It is very
important because all the future subjects that we going to talk about is
written in this Era, the pslams all talk about David and Judah , how Judah is
promenant city and how Mount of Zion is place where everybody should come here
and worship God, and the Book of proverbs most of them made actually said by
Conditions which scholars give them, major themes and Crisis, The First are
Crisis of urbanization تحضر but when we are talking about crisis that
happened in urbanization, because of the political system there were
corruption, now if people have king they will have to give tax to the king
which craze the potential of corruption then second kings need army where the
army will come from the poor people, and third one he will take more ladies for
himself, so it is mostly in an ethical issue to having a king, is the
corruption ethical and financial that we see when it comes to urbanization,
during the kingship of Solomon. But at the time of Solomon the sky rocketing
with corruption began at that time and after his son everything was divided,
but urbanization mostly start with David there is a kingdom we start seeing
Jerusalem becoming an Urban center till the Destruction of Jerusalem, so it is
mostly 450 years when David was around the first millennium.
Always the Israelites when they talked about the Sea always it was about
Chaos and God the one who bring order to the Sea the chaos subdue Water, so
they kept away from the Sea, while in the minor prophets jona is the first one
who go the Sea, always we can see from the context they were terrified, even jona
when he talked about the Sea as it is his dystanity to his death, tarshish in
the Ancient word is the far end of the world, because at that time they thought
the world is flat, it is like he will die, this is the end of the world this is
the understanding of the sea, so most probably they stayed in the center and
the ridge mountains only Elijah went to the Carmel mount that went to place
near the Sea, but the sea never mentioned it always reflect chaos and sea is
also before the creation .
So that is the Issue of urbanization the Corruption of Solomon and his
dynasty but when it comes to the rest of the books, when we talk about major
and minor prophets when we see respond from political issues like one of the
prophets respond to king of Israel , other one to Kingdom of Judah, like jona
was in Israel but somehow he prophecies about Judah, the Crisis of colonization
, Syria is colonizing our land and taking us away form our God.
According to our Studies of the Hebrews we understand that God is
territorial Land he is limited to the Temple Mount and to Jerusalem but here
the question of the Crisis, if the assyrians and Babylonians were able to
destroy Jerusalem and take us away then our God is weak, where Is god, what
happens on the ground , happens in heaven.
But we see the ancient nature , the king was taken away to the Exile and
people began to question the sovereignty of god so how can they trust a god,
that lost control over the situation, and how could he allow this evil to
happen to them , the Deuteronomy was
written after the Exile as it was the basic rule if we worship god and obey god
and we live in that land and we shall prosper if we don’t , the land will be
taken away from us .
At some time they edited there books the Israelites during many different
era’s in the Old testament, book of jona is particular to the north kingdom so
most likely 750 B.C , the book is most probably edited in 250 BC , which most
likey have not been in 750 BC , so those books were edited because not the
content was edited, the language and/or clarifications for the contemporary
reader will understand, but when you edit the book it reflect the crises you
Colonization is crisis , when people were exiled out of the country they
lived In those crisis, where is our god, we have been defeated , because
according to ancient Israelites he was the most powerful and they thought of
God as political King and they were after god for the benefit of worshipping
God for example, you will see that most of the time they focus on Jerusalem
because it si the center of God presents but they didn’t commit to the law so
they thought of God as magical charm they thought of God that way, if Jerusalem
and god is not there that means an end for our Kingdom , god wanted to show
them yes it is actually true but it is my way not your way.
David talks about when he run away and the psalms all about his
experience and what he express in the book of psalms and then almost disappear
like almost a legend in the past and we wish his days will come back, david was
the perfect king if we look in the past but it couldn’t be really true, like
the prophets also if god give him a promise he will rise up with David in the
future he want to go back in history and be like David, the Israelites always
backward to the future and look into the Past, for us in the eastern church
traditions for example the world will be renewed and restored, if we embarrass
all our heritage we will understand more how it is like in the old testament
till these days same concept is how it is like in the old testament in our
middle eastern community.
When we come to the New Testament it is always about Jesus as the son of
David, the book of Kings we see many of the events that happened in the rest of
the Old Testament happened in Kings and Chronicles which is known as the
third kingdom book.
Samuel 1+2 then we have kings ending David and starting with Solomon, so
total 3 kings and mostly less focus on Solomon but we also read about Solomon
In proverbs and Ecclesiastes and psalms are mostly related or connected to
Solomon, and most probably that Solomon wrote significant part of the psalms,
and psalms we read about most likely inspired onward and dictated later by
The auther evaluate of each king based on there monarchies, Jerusalem is
the standard that is why we see many people criticize Israel and its kings
because the capital supposed to be Israel.
Post Exile very few things mentioned at that time but most likely things
were written at that time like jona book most likely after post exile, he is
very critical of his nation but some of the books we will notice that half of
it written before and later on written after like Isaiah , for example let us
talk about pslams, we can notice that some of the books in the river of
ephraites we sat and wept, so pslams written at time of David we sat and wept
so it is defiantly written after .
Although at Solomon time it was the only time in history god filifilled
his promise in Israel and he controlled all over the land.
The Divided Kingdom about the major and minor prophets mostly talking
about this Era, the northern kingdom include ten tribes all of them were evil
the capital were schekem and later samaria.
The Southern kingdom and Certain part of Benjamin , twenty kings , 8 of
them were good and twelve were evil, and the capital was Jerusalem.
Northern Kingdom with political divisions Jerbohom, when prophet went to
him and cut it into ten parts and prophecies the divided kingdom, he introduced
the religious revelations about yahwesim.
The Southern kingdom saw the worship system as economy by itself, he
introduced different religion so for him to have political independence for
Israel from the rest of the kingdom he have to economic independence as well.
Bethel they started giving the offerings there, and attempts to provide
alternative to Jerusalem temple, then we talking about Omri that try to give
power in Israel, where it was extended to the territory of Moab, Misha Stella
that talk about Omri and talk about the Northern Kingdom.
House of OMri used to refer to Israel as micha the king of Moab, in the
Micha inscription he make Samaria his new Capital omri.
Akhab son of Omri was very bad king, he sized power in the northern
kingdom and the story of Akhab he married Jezabail, after his father omri he
married the princess of sydon, he introduced the worship of Baal in the
Israelites History it was the biggest enemy of God.
If there is God for the Israelites that was the worst is Baal, Elijah
also confront of the 450 prophets of Baal and challenge them, in the Kishon
Later on Ikhab and Jezabel tried to take over the vineyard of naboth ,
so jezebel wrote to people who swear that naboth cursed on god and the king, so
they stoned him and killed him, so Akhab took his vaneyard and later wee see
that Elijah confronted Akhab and jezebel was killed.
Northern kingdom the history of the northern kingdom , two kings hezkaih
and Josaiah , because of the high regards the information they implemented in
Jerusalem and in Judah, after period of peace between Israel and Judah, johash
invaded Jerusalem , plundered the temple and took many hostages from the
Samarians, it is part of the hate and bitternes between the people of Judah and
Samartia, later on Israel enjoy some stability.
The Southern kingdom we can go forward and talk about the Good kings and
bad kings and particular Hezekiah that was most important figure in the divided
kingdom history specially the religious one, they were terrified from the Assyrians
and he was like reformer and like Hezekiah tunnel when the Assyrians sieged
The Theology of Exile , when we talked about Eden and the land, how the
ancient people saw the univerise as the universe is god’s temple and it is
reflecting in God creating the world, and then we have canaan as the second
eden and then how they think of Jerusalem as the temple as manifestation of
Eden again, so the univerise is always surrounded by the temple and also which
equals eden, so whenever they are taking away from land they are taken away
from Eden, but the sin is illustrated like Death , so leaving eden is Death, so
the Exile for the Israelites is Death, so this is always in the back of their
minds when writing the books and vision of the Future.
In the Chronicles we remember is the first commentary in the Bible
because it summarize the kings , somehow certain parts it repeat the history ,
people from the exile exaggerate they talk about David the good king, they
don’t mention bethseba, like david didn’t do anything like he was a perfect
king , always elvate the nationalstic
spirit, talking about Eza and nehemaihah, when people coming back from the
exile, Zerbabel first later Ezra then join Ezra nehemaiah.
They weren’t as glorious as the times of Solomon but they had some break
from the Cirius.
The Question about colonization Is where is god, can god be defeated, so
now in all the books god is defeated, where is god, now we read eza is
returning to the land, now god is restoring his people, when people have been
in the exile, we talked about Esther, according to the name Hadasah, Esther
doesn’t mention god as he is absent he is not there , but he is working in
history, miraculously esther becomes the queen and advice for her people to
fast and pray for three days before she stand before the king and deliver the
truth and later on the Israelites were saved and thousands of Persians become
commited to the worship of Yahweh.