The Byzantine Period – Q & A

What Does the name Byzantium / Byzantine means?

Byzantium was an ancient Greek colony that was founded by a man named Byzas on the European side of the Bosporus. It became the center of the Byzantine Empire. When Constantine decided to make it the capital of the Roman Empire he changed the name to Constantinople.

Why did Constantine start believing in the God of the Christians?

At the battle by the Milvian Bridge over the river Tiber, Constantine looks up to the light of the sun and sees a cross of light above it with the words ‘In hoc signo vinces’, in this sign, you will conquer. The next night he has a dream in which Christ explains that he should use the sign of the cross against his enemies. He used the symbol of the cross with the Greek
letters XP (first two letters of Christos in the Greek alphabet) on the armor of his soldiers and he defeated Maxentius in this battle.

What were the Changes in the Byzantine Period?

First of all, it is good to realize that the name Byzantine Empire was given to it only after
the empire fell (in the time of the Renaissance in Europe). When the Western Roman
Empire fell to Germanic conquerors in 476 AD the Eastern Empire continued on as what
historians would later refer to as the Byzantine Empire. During the Byzantine period they
actually still called it the Roman Empire and they referred to themselves as Romans. They
were mainly Greek-speaking and Christians but they still used Roman laws, had the Roman
What did change was that the Byzantine Empire shifted its capital from Rome to
Constantinople, that the official religion became Christianity and the official language
changed from Latin to Greek. The orientation was now on Greek rather than Latin culture.
In Palestine, we see that the majority of Christians are Greek Orthodox.
Constantine supported the Christian church. He gave wealth to the church, he was involved
in important religious debates and he gave preference to Christians in the government.
Two of the most important churches were built, the Nativity Church in Bethlehem and the
Holy Sepulcher church in Jerusalem.
In Palestine the administration was reorganized into three dioceses:
Palaestina Prima (Judea, Samaria, coastal area and Perea) with Caesarea as capital
Palaestina Secunda (Galilee, lower Jezreel valley, area east of Galilee, west of former
Decapolis) with Scythopolis as capital
Palaestina Salutaris (the Negev, southern Jordan, most of Sinai) with Petra as capital
The Byzantine also influenced the architecture with their Roman and Greek-inspired
Byzantine style, using the cruciform transept, mosaics, frescos and other highly decorative

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Hebrew Bible Old Testament, Jobs and Pslams

Describe the points of view of Eliphaz, Bildad,

and Zophar. Where did they place the blame for

Job’s suffering? What was Job’s response?

Elphaz – Talks About God’s Justice and Embrace it and the teaches that people bring the troubles on themselves they deserve it

Bildad talks about an individual who goes after sin and wickedness and should only expect this punishment and also Bildad consider himself a defender of the orthodox doctrine

Zophar – explain about job punishment it was just reasonable and zophar himself is a reasonable person and this was something expected for job to get from him

Job Response – God’s Judgment Matches with Job Sin so he accepts what he is getting from God and the blame

How does Elihu characterize Job’s problem? To

what does he attribute God’s silence? What does

he see as the key to alleviating Job’s suffering?

Elihu first start with telling how young he is and he is sorry about that but as he says Wisdom is god granted and doesn’t come with Age and he wants them to pay attention for what he will say, and then he says that Job Problem is just didn’t come yet and it is a calling or a prayer that god didn’t answer yet, and it is normal for us as humans to suffer and god sees it as a way of correction and the prayer is calling for god and submitting to god and we acknowledge our sins and we want god to make it right for us, and also God have different understanding than human beings understanding  as we can see from the third speech he informs job that he is not effected by events on earth and also in the second speech he talks how god is just and this is something can’t be denied and if he did this is being a Rebel against god and this is of course a sin, and as we can see from the context elihu speak on god’s behalf and tell job and his three friends that god see all people equal, slave and king and most important is to repent back to God for salvation.

How does the Lord rebuke job in 38:1-42:6? what is job’s response?             

We can see by reading job that there is series of questions addressed from God to Job till job 41 and he criticized him for his ignorance , then on Job 42 , job replied back to God “You said, ‘Listen now, and I will speak;

    I will question you,

    and you shall answer me.’

 My ears had heard of you

    but now my eyes have seen you.

Therefore I despise myself

    and repent in dust and ashes.”

Job admit that he is didn’t have the ability to deal with life and he is inadequate and he acknowledged his mistake and want to repent.

Name the major contributors to the book of

Psalms. What makes the book so unique in God’s


Many writers contributed to the book of Psalms: David, Asaph, the sons of Korah, Moses, Solomon, and a number of anonymous writers.

Peter walker , Elias zuluf and haytham diek

Bethlehem tourism – Bethlehem Tour Guiding with Dr. Peter Walker and Haytham Diek

Dr. Peter walker is widely acknowledged as one of the Best experts and he wrote many books one of them In the Steps of Jesus, he has been doing Tours and also Bethlehem Tours for the Past 30 Years to the Holy land.

Bethlehem The House of Bread, You will have a Meal, from Bread to Meat, It is all about Food, in Bethlehem we do Live in Wonderful Place, many people from All over the World want to come to this Town, The Home Town of David, and want to hear the story of Bethlehem, we as tour Guides we will be their Teachers, we will be their guides, and we will remember Bethlehem from what we Say mostly, they will also remember the Place where Jesus have been born, they will also Remember who guided them, if you smile they will love us, if not they won’t, as simple as that, The Smile and the Character and making them interested in the people who live in Bethlehem will make us Great Tour guides in Bethlehem.

We might not remember every Fact correctly but they will listen to us and they will go back home happy, to be efficient Bethlehem Tour guide is not only about being a teacher but to be the Inspiration and to Inspire our Visitors.

We often think that a good teacher that is someone who teaches, we think a good teacher is a good teacher who teaches facts to people minds, a good teacher also inform, giving information, at end of the day it is very important to INSPIRE not only just teach or inform.

Love the people you’re talking to and communicate something inspiring that will get them excited, a good person does not only touch the mind but also touch the heart, most important “ touch the imagination “

And also try to affect the Individual the person, they may also willing to change their WILL, try to motivate people will, if the people listen to us they feel we value them as people, interested in their life, I’m going to listen to them and value them,  fill their imagination, touch their hearts.

Facts very important but on their own are very boring, tell a story, when the days of David …imagine what it was like. Being down there in beit sahour, he was young boy age 9..and he saw a lion, and he throws a stone at it and killed the lion…five years later he throws a stone and he killed goliath

While in beit sahour think of david as young boy, he had lots of older brothers, and he Samuel he wanted to pour the oil on the head of a man that would be the next king,..went to 2nd one, no, and he went to all of them, and he told Jessi bring him here…he was with the sheep …

As Dr. Peter Said ” I was here last week guiding in Bethlehem with ughandan man, in his forties, and he always felt that he is the one out, and he still looks like lost boy, suddenly I came out and the picture of jessi and little David on the right, immediately I told him…your not the least important person of your family, your important and I said a prayer to encourage him….”

“It was very special moment for him …he will go from Bethlehem and will remember, my older brothers are more important to me….i made a story and I made link and or connection when they visited Bethlehem, and this is the kind of thing will be you telling stories …or story about what is like to be in Bethlehem in Muslim festival or Christmas festival …”

Indeed They will love our Family Traditions, they will be amazed how we celebrate all uncles and aunts, he spends all his money to keep his wife happy, 200,000 Shakels just to Get Married, and have to invite more than five hundred people..our family traditions ..our culture

Tell people stories, tell them stories about your culture and life here, but of course, many people come here and all that they want to hear about Jesus…if all your explanations about Bethlehem don’t tell them about Jesus it won’t be good enough, some of the visitors will know the bible stories, so what we try to find something, a point of connection and then build on that

So when you guiding in any place, it is very useful to have bible with you, the best you can do any place is to read the biblical passages, and some might remember or some might hear it from you, it is language they understand, you will read it out, and everybody can just sit and hear the story

And they were their shepherds out at night and suddenly there were angels coming to them, and when they heard that, you can say few things are you with me, when we are guiding speak very quickly, if English is not your first language ..Go slow,

And they will take them a day or two to pick up your English, it is fine but that is not what they are used to, when you go slow they think carefully, and sometimes fewer words are better,

Better to say one true sentence, it is the place where Christians remember where Jesus has been born, just say it slowly and they will focus and be important for them,

And remember silence after a sentence helps people to process what they heard, you will find the best part of the lecture is ten minutes after it is finished, because your brain takes time to hear and process what you heard,

So always give space to your speakers to ask questions or repeat, because it gives them a chance to think what you say, If there is old lady and can’t get off the bus, go help her, and sometimes there will be real challenge’s, and please tell them to bring others and buy our olive wood, challenge your visitors there imagination’s to whole new world

Tell the story and how much Rachel loved Jacob, he loved Rachel, and when later joseph brothers take him down to Egypt, joseph demand they bring Benjamin back as security, and Jacob don’t want to give the last one..Imagine what is it like, they know what is it like to lose someone special or lose a wife, David and then Solomon and then comes rehobom fortified by him, Bethlehem is important place and it need fortification, and it is where kingdom is built up.

You can’t talk about Bethlehem or guide Bethlehem without talking about Ruth, the story is amazing, this is just sound like a true story, from Bethlehem around 1100 BC , people in there fields harvesting and then ruth picking up the extra wheat, it feel like it is just normal story in Bethlehem, but a true story, it will be told as it is,

He took the sandal off as like contact, to pass tradition of the rights, the kinsman redeemer, take off your sandals, I remember seeing him to take the sandals, it was very smelly and bad sandal, did he ever do that, yes he did , we saw that sandal, we remember the smell of that sandal that day  , do you remember it?

Ruth and boaz is beautiful story and I think of it as whole new level , Jesus birth and love story and story of young little David in the fields, and I turned from sorrow to joy , Mary and joseph also arrive in Bethlehem and not married but she have a baby, but I bring you tidings of great joy and david struggling he is not very important but he is a king, or you can tell about a place very small it will be most important small , Bethlehem , out of you Bethlehem will come out ruler who will be the ruler of Israel, you little Bethlehem anything good can come out of Bethlehem, you can tell a story about god, I will take it small and make it great,

Tell a story about David small littlie boy who will be great, a boy who is born and left in a manger, but will become king of the world, all in Bethlehem , you can tell a story how god love the weak and shame the strong,

People will connect with this , you encourage them that lord is with them, develop a bit of spiritual point, god loves the weak and protect weak, as jesus said those For those who exalt themselves will be humbled, and those who humble themselves will be exalted. Mathew 23:12

Herod the great dies in march 4 B.C , and we know jesus born before 4 B.C , massacre of the inoccents, we know herod , kill your wife and build her a tower, he was very paranoid , he gave order that when he die, other local jewish leaders should be put to Death, so when he dies, people would cry, because he felt that people wouldn’t cry otherwise, actually he dies in Jericho.

So we have the magi’s came from the east, where he have been king of the jews, tell me where he have been born…tell me come on tell me so I can go and worship him also??

150 AD gospel of James , it is mentioned as it is true, you have to tell story how jesus was born in a cave, it is issue that we need to discuss, it is a Palestinian jewish hope where there is cave in the back, where there is a place where no room in the guests room,

Queen Helena, used to serve drinks in a bar in northern London, learn the facts but also tell a story, let people imagine, if you had group from Britain queen Helena was one of you my friends ,

Jerome he actually said your near in God in Britannia than in Bethlehem, he was trying to make the point to be as Christian pilgrim, you came in a great pilgrimage and it was a great Idea… or we can Imagine that He is having too many piligrims visiting his cave and he want to have some peace while translating the Bible.

Persians lovely head gear as the magies they like the Persians , it is our church we won’t destroy it, Persian invasion was most savage time of the land.

Muslim arrival was peaceful arrival, the Persian was bloody one, 614 AD , the church survives in the Muslim times, the church of the holy scepluchure didn’t, tell story, and whenever you talk about some events from the past , use your imagination, so link to stories.

We live in vibrant community here..actually people in beit sahour are very different than people in Bethlehem, we had big problems in Bethlehem, imagine having big wall between you and your garden or between you and your neighbor.

Don’t start your Bethlehem Trip with politics or even do any one sided politics just stay neutral and tell people facts , show them how Great our culture , history and hospitality, Vibrant community, we got some great stories from the past, eatin out of your hats, what is it like to live here, it is great but we have some problems, my wife can’t go to Jerusalem, she doesn’t have id, but don’t do politics first, they didn’t come here for politics.

Jerusalem was a Temple, it was the main thing and big thing, Jerusalem was why it was popular, the City of David, it seems to be strongly the case, where David founded the City of Jerusalem, 1003 BC , Bethlehem is Town of David, Jerusalem is the City of David, City of King David, he took over the jebusites City of Jerusalem, at the moment we can see that the city of David is very thing city and very narrow, 50 yards wide , it had valley system on three sides, kidron valley and the cheese makers valley, and gehinnom valley, the Dung Gate, the sewerage of Jerusalem out of the valley, until lately .

The time of Jesus they didn’t have underground sewerage Jerusalem , the wind come of the west, to the east to the mount of olives, no body live there, they live in the upper city, poor people lived down there but no one live there, tell a story about smell , people love it, Then you take them to shop and sell them perfumes,

The city of David here is because of the water , the gehon spring and access to water, so Jerusalem is safe to three sides but always vulnerable to attack from the north,And eventually it expanded in this direction on the upper hill, and they built wall at the top also,

So it was the problem with the north wall, they were trying to figure out where the north wall , all the archeologist, church of the holy sepluchre , somebody might say it was inside the city wall, the first century tombs you can still see ten yards away from the traditional time of jesus,

Catacomb (Coceen ) – archeological evidence the church of the resurrection was outside , much jesus was did was in the upper city, the last supper in the upper city,

The upper hill , was much much higher than the city of David down there, near the Zion gate you will look down, it is long way down, imagine people walking up from the lowest city of david to the upper city, the wealthy nation the high priest, and when pontius pilate, he also stayed in the upper city, the palace of herod the Great,

Suggestion that Jesus had his last supper here, and he goes down through the Golden gate and make his way to getsemane, and he is brought back to the temple to kaifa’s house and then to pointious pilate and they are all close to each other, why we say pointious stay at that house, she is called caludia poklia, she doesn’t like going to Jerusalem and she have to go there, they are celebrating, libration moses, Passover time, everybody says it is going to be the moment, Claudia ….. ponty ponty do we have to go to the Passover, I like to stay at herod place, I don’t want to stay at army barracks, where Antonia palace, where all these men got there machine guns, I want to stay at the palace of herod the great, we got lots of soldiers there not 300 but we got enough and we have swimming pools, it was called herod high regency it was lovely hotel 5 star and extra food for you, and we can get there into side gate, we sneak in through outside gate and we will be in the palace without anybody knowing , that is how you solve the problem where ponty stay,

that time things weren’t so good between romans and herod..they are fighting for power, so it could be he wanted to make sure he have is authority and stay at the Antonia ..he wanted to prove a point …he wanted to put his authority so most likely both Antonia and the Herod Palace

Herod son archalaius was bad, he wanted to rule Judea directly …all the armies are romans,

Golgotha, is aramic, which means calvary, it could be a place of execution or it could be that rock had the shape of a skull, it could have had couple of eye sockets in it, this look like skull and the name stuck as skull,

The Palace of King Herod the Great, the Idea of littlie hill made out of rock and the caves which got tombs in them, and the rectangle mark the site of the present church of the holy scepluchure  , the Quarry and here there is bit of rock, and all this area is quarry, and Golgotha is the name for the whole area not just the rock, so it could be 50 yards * 50 yards, and somebody says where can we remember jesus place so they said here, so that become the place, but it could have happened twenty yards that way and twenty yards that way, but a tomb is a narrow thing but the place of crucifxtion could be any place,

If you like to join one of my tours that i guide in Bethlehem and Travel to Bethlehem Click Here – Bethlehem Toursim

Story: there is bishop maccaruis he go often to famous counsel , near Constantinople near there nicenea july AD year 25, and they are lovely drink of orange juice when they go nervously to the emperor, your majesty we have a very important project in the land of Jerusalem, one of your latest monto eza , emperor hadran , pagan shrine over the tomb jesus, give us some shakels, dollars we need to do excavation to find the tomb of jesus, the emperor say I give you the money the shakels it make me very important. And they make the digging and they discover a tomb, they rejoice, the tradition is true and they are pleased to find it, but when they are there, when jesus died on a cross, where is the wood, and someone find some wood around and start saying this is the wood of the cross, and eusebius, he think it is stupid there is no way the wood would have survived 300 years, we know the site used by pagans all kind of stuff,

But some of the Christians get excited he found the cross, he try it play it down, but he say the tomb is the correct site and he is very convinced , and the emperor start selling it to people…take it back to Italy take it back to Rome..or just give it, and somehow you see the wood of the cross is to promote Jerusalem , queen Helena, does come to the holy land does indeed visit Bethlehem but no one at the time link queen Helena with the wood of the cross, that idea only took 70 years later , it was a story of queen Helena finding a cross and a jewish person  and try to identiy , and then it touches the person and he come back from the dead and I belive it is a legend and it is not true, but some people belive it is true and they tell you it is magical healing miracle , when somebody else come along they say it is stupid, and then the whole church look stupid, so we have to separate fact from fantasy, so the tomb is very likely to be authentic, and the cross is zero just legend.

Spoke about mount zion, where the early church first met to worship , lastsupper, meeting with the risen Christ at the upper room, and the story of pentacles, also shows the gate of zion and the steep hill where Jerusalemites used to throw rubbish, sacrifices and also prior to that maybe performing child sacrifices.

Thousand years later we can see it in jesus day, could try to keep the enemy out , it could be much bigger at the time of jesus, just few years after the time of crucifixtion, there it is added, bring Golgotha inside the city, but the big date, is 139 AD , they renamed the city, they called ELIA capatolina, named after Hadrian and the gods of capital hill, and secondly the buildings are destroyed and they put an army camp out there, which is put north south, and you can see it is further north than the city of jesus day, it is no longer in the city it moved, we need to make sure jews won’t know, and they not allowed to see Jerusalem and Bethlehem as well because it is very close to Jerusalem, city expanded .

The Early Islamic Period 638-1099

  • The Rashidun Caliphate 638-661
  • The Umayyad Caliphate 661-750
  • The Abbasid Caliphate 750 – 969 AD
  • Ulunid Dynasty 868-905 AD
  • Ikhshidid Rule 935-969 AD
  • The Fatimid Caliphate 969-1071
  • Seljuqs 1071-1098
  • Fatimds 1099

During the Early Arab period , Several Islamic Dynasties had came along Palesitne , starting by the Rashidun Caliphate 632-661 AD , Umayyad 661-750 AD , Abbasid 750-969 AD, and Fatimid 969-1099

Prophet Muhammad 570-632 , was an Arab Religious, Social and Political Leader and the Founder of Islam , According to Islamic Doctrine he was sent to Humanity to present and confirm the monotheistic teachings preached previously by adam, abraham , moses , jesus and other prophets

Prophet Mohammad is viewed as the final prophet of all prophets in Islam expect for some Muslim denominations such as Druze and Bahai

Prophet Mohammad is refereed to by many Appellations such as Messenger of Allah, The Prophet Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle and Last Prophet of Islam and other names also, and there is many variant spelligns of muhammad such as Mohamet, Mahamad, Muhamad and many others.

Prophet Mohammad Born in year 570 CE ( Year of the Elephant ) in the Arabian City of Mecca and was orphaned at the Age of 6

Prophet Mohammad was Raised under the Care of Paternal Grandfather abd Al-Muttalib and upon his death by his uncle Abu Talib

At Later times of his life he would periodically seclude himself in a mountain Cave named Hira for Several nights of prayer when he was 40 , muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the Cave of Hira at Jabal Al Nour ( Mountain of Light ) in Mecca an dreceiving his First revelation from God

in Year 610 the Rise of Islam, Prophet Muhammad Started preaching the revelations he have been announced to him by Angel Gabriel , God is one and that complete submission to god is the right way of life, and h was a prophet and messenger of God similar to the other Prophets of Islam.

The Followers of Muhammad were initially few in number and experienced hostility from meccan’s who worshipped many gods, (polytheists) , he sent some of his followers to Abyssinia , Axum, Ethiopian Empire in the year 615 to shield them from prosecution, and in the year 622 Muhammad migrated from Mecca to Medina in the year 622

The Event of the Hirja 622 the prophet muhammad migration from Mecca to Medina in order to escape Persecution marks the beginning of the Islamic Calender – In Medina muhammad united the Tribes under the Constitution of Medina

Soon After Muhammad Emigration to Medina in 622, he indicated Jerusalem as the Qiblah probably influenced by Jewish Tradition, when the jewish-muslim relations no longer seemed promising Muhammad Changed the Qiblah to Mecca.

According to the Traditional Muslim View, the Qiblah in the Islamic Prophet Muhmmad time was originally the Noble Sanctuary in the City of Jerusalem, similar to Judaism , This Qiblah was used for over 13 years , from 610 until 623 CE , seventeen months after muhammad’s 622 CE arrival in Medina, The Qiblah became oriented Towards the Kaaba in Mecca

How this change happen from Jerusalem to Mecca?
According to Traditional Accounts from Muhammad’s Companions the change happend very suddently during the Noon Prayer in Medina, in a mosque now known as Masjid Al-Qiblatayn

Muhammad was leading the prayer when he received the revelations from God instructing him to take the Kaaba as the Qiblah

In December 629 after eight years of fighting with Meccan Tribes, Muhammad gathered an army of 10,000 Muslim Converts and marched on the City of Mecca, the Conquest went largely uncontested and Muhammad Seized the City with Little Bloodshed

in 632 a few months after returning from the farewell pilgrimage, he fell ill and died, by the time of his death most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam

The Revelations which means “ayah” it means sign of God, that Muhammad reported receiving until his death form the Verses of the Quran , Regarded by Muslims as the Verbatim ” Word of God” on which the religion is Based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad teachings and Pracices ( Sunnah ) , found in the Hadith and Sira, are also upheld and used as sources of Islamic Law.

Etymology = علم أصول الكلمات

The Rashidun Caliphate 632 – 661 AD

Jacob, Israel – The Patriarch of Israelite’s 1950-1870 BC

  • Issac is the only Son of Abraham and Sarah
  • Issac is the Father of Jacob and Esau
  • Sara was past the age of childbearing but god promised Abraham and Sarah at Mamre that they would have son, in Mamre there is church built at time of Constantine
  • Abraham was 100 years old when Isaac was born
  • God Tested Abraham’s Obedience and he commanded him to Sacrifice the boy , abraham made all preparations and rituals but last moment god spared the Child life – the Boy name Issac in judaism and Christianity, in Islam it was Ishmael
  • Issac meaning he will laugh because sarah laughed when god promised them they will have son and she was very old
  • Issac married to Rebekah she was from mesopotima from Nahor , Abraham sent his steward eliezer to find wife for him so he went up all way to Nahor and found him wife from his nephew of Abraham Bethuel’s Family, Rebekah was Aramean , we can see that Abraham they still preferred to have wife from there original place
  • Abraham Father his name is Terah
  • Rebecca sister of Labal – Uncle of Jacob was the daughter of Bethuel , who was the son of Abraham’s brother Nahor and his wife Milcah
  • Issac is the only patriarch whose name was not changed and he is the only one who did not move out of the land of canaan and he died at age of 180 years old the longest, Abraham original name was Abram and Israel Original name Jacob
  • After Death of Abraham , issac decided to move to a place near Beersheba called Ain Muweileh or moilahhi and Area in antiquity called beer-lahai-roi which means the well of the living one who sees me
  • his family settled in Beer sheva also and that is why we see in genesis 28:10 jacob left beersheba and set out for Haran
  • We can also see they used to Avoid Cities the patriarchs as they were nomadic herdsmen
  • The Patriarchs Journey was through Mountain Hills of Land of Canaan and later the patriarchs route originate from that road
  • We can see to the patriarchs that Haran was to some extend still home to them when jacob wanted to flee from his brother Esau he wen tot Haran
  • jacob was the younger twin brother of Esau , Esau is the ancestor of Edom and the Edomites which king herod and his father antipar originate from
  • The Difference Between Jacob and Esau that Jacob was being a pastoralist and Esau was a nomadic hunter
  • Jacob meaning Holder of the Heel or Supplanter , so we have two meanings of Jacob , and it is called supplanter because he deprived his brother of his rights as the first born son
  • other Meanings of Jacob like Ya’aqov’el meaning May God Protect
  • Esau / Edom they all originate from there and also Esau meanisng the hairy one or the born red all , he is the elder son of Issac and Rebecca , and he sold his birthright to his younger brother jacob for bowl of Stew , and he was Nomadic Hunter , also Edom Meaning Red
  • When Rebekeah was pregnant with Jacob and Esau the two boys were struggling with each other in her womb , she asked the lord why is this happening to me, the lord answered the sons in your womb will become two nations, and from the beginning the two nations will be rivals, one will be stronger than the other, and your older son shall serve your younger son
  • and at time of birth rebeka discovered that she had twin sons one is like fur coat , thick red hair they called him Esau, and the second one was grapsing Esau’s Heel so they named him Jacob , Issac was about sixty years old when the twins were born
  • in Genesis 25:29-34 , it talks about Esau selling his brithright to jacob , when Esu returned starving from the fields and begged his brother jacob to give him Soup , jacob offered to give Esau a bowl of Stew in exchange for the birthrigth and Esau accepted
  • When Issac was old and uncertain when he will die he requested from Esau to go kill some wild game and cook it as he liked it and he will give him the blessing , rebeca overheard the conversation and she wanted to change things since she got prophicy from god that the older brother will serve the younger , Rebecca Blessed jacob and told him to quickly bring two young goats from their flock so that he can cook them and take the blessing instead of Esau, jacob protested that his father would recognize their deception since esau was hairy and he himself was smooth skinned, he feared his father will curse him but rebecca offered to take the curse herself , so jacob did as the mother instructed and rebekah made the meat that issac loved, and before she dressed him in esau’s garments and laid goatskins on hisarms and neck to simulate hairy skin just like his brother esau
  • What was the blessing that Issac gave to his son Jacob? ” Therefore may god give you, of the dew of Heaven, of the fatness of the earth, and plenty of grain and wine, let peoples serve you, and nations bow down to you, be master over your brethern and let your mother’s sons bow down to you, cursed be everyone who curses you, and blessed be those who bless you”!
  • Jacob had scarcely left the room when esau returned from the hunt to prepare his wild game and receive the blessing, the realization that he had been deceived shocked issac , and he said i ate all of it before you came, and i have blessed him, and indeed he shall be blessed
  • Esau was heartbroken and he requested a blessing from his father Issac, but Issac told him i made your brother ruler over his brothers, and told him by your sword you shall live, but your brother you shall serve
  • even though it was already sold to him the blessing from esau to jacob he still got angry because he got the blessing from his father
  • Esau Vowed to kill his brother as soon his father issac died so rebecca told her younger son to go and travel to haran ( Paddan Aram ( until esau anger subsided , so jacob travelled to Laban’s house , the brother of rebecca his uncle

Political Science with Dr. Adnan Musallam 10-10-2019

  • Steadfastness – Stay in our Homes , stay in our Land, don’t leave
  • quiproquo, is a French Concept , something for something, do one thing for another thing.
  • Stonewalling – Delaying something , stone wailing to delay something, in parliaments
  • Weimar Republic – is a democratic system Hilter Exploited This System, as soon he became the Chanceler of Germany he destroyed it after he got power
  • Literary Digest – from the High class – they thought they will win, newspaper that only rich people read
  • George Gallup Poll he got people from middle class
  • renaissance – النضهة
  • Arab communities played major Role in Renaissance worldwide
  • Enlightenment Era – عصر التنوير
  • Abraham Lincoln
  • 242 – Research on them important
  • 338
  • 242 and 338 are both relying on 242 Land for Peace Formula – 242 and 338
  • Final Statues Negotiations – Provided for in the 1993 Declaration of Principles to be the Second Part of the Two-Phase Timetable, mostly about Jerusalem, Refugees, Settlements, security arrangments, Borders, water , relationship with other cooperation with other neighbors.
  • Armistice Line
  • 4th of June Map is different than 5th of June map 1967