Mammals 2-10-2019 by Dr Mazin Qumsieh

Notes

  • Mammals we Differentiate them based on skulls
  • We Differentiate Mammals based on Lactation ( رضاعة) and Hair and they also sweat
  • There is Actually Egg Laying Mammals
  • In Palestine we don’t have Egg laying Mammals or Marsupials ( Pouched Mammals ) but we have other eutherian mammals
  • Eutherian Mammals We Also call them placenta mammals because they feed there babies inside there placenta mammals
  • First Palestinian Biologist is Dr. Sana Atallah
  • Mammals and birds Regulate there Temperatures for example humans always 37 , if weather outside is 40 our body stay the same 37 , on the other hand things like fish they don’t control there body temperatures
  • the Teeth is very important to know about, they tell us what the animal eat
  • Carnivore it means animal that eat meat
  • Palestinian Ghazal Doesn’t Shed its antlers or horns
  • Insectivore means it is an animal that eats insects
  • Herbivore means it eats plants that is why there teeth looks like grinders that is why it have flat structure , also it have many kinds
  • Frugivores it means they eat fruits
  • Omnivores it eats both plants and Meat
  • Pisicovers – they eat fish and swallow it direct with those teeth like dolphins
  • Stomach and Digestive System it adapt what the animal eats, The Cow for example have very large Digestive structure because plants very hard to Diguest and take longer time that is why they are long
  • Cecoum is bacterial storage area and in humans we don’t need it anymore our ancestors it was beneficial for them when they used to depend more on eating plants before they started hunting
  • smaller you are , less surface area you have, the bigger you are the less surface area, and if you want to regulate your body temperature , the smaller you are the more difficult
  • Palestinian Bird is the Humming Bird it moves very fast
  • One of the Interesting Mammals are Bats , they are not birds and between the fingers we have some skin
  • Dolphins and Bats Echo locate for example they send sound and it come back to them as echo it is also that is how they developed the sonar
  • most of the Bat Noise we as humans can’t hear it, human ears are one of the weakest in the Mammals , Fox and dogs have much better hearing
  • Bats have system of receiving (ears )
  • in Palestine we have 24 species of Bats , they all eat meat expect for one Bat his name Egyptian Fruit Bat
  • Horse Shoes Bats they look like Horse Shoes
  • Bats stay in Caves and Old houses mostly, they hunt and go out at night and hunt at night for insects, and birds during the Day for insects , Insects are very rich in nitrogen , there waste is very rich for very good fertile
  • Bats in Palestine getting less and less, because the use of chemicals to kill bats and also to kill insects
  • Animals of the holy land are mentioned in the Bible and Quran many times , for example it is mentioned the hair it is not allowed to eat,
  • Hare = Wild Rabbit nearly
  • Carnivora in palestine consist of 5 families with total till today 18 surviving species
  • Family Canidate like the wolf the jackal, the fox …
  • also jackal mentioned in the Bible and Isiah and Jeremiah
  • The Family Felidae = The Cats Family, we have very few species in palestine , there is about five or six species in palestine
  • Family hyaenidae only one species in Palestine , it is called striped Hyena
  • Lifespan of hyena , they live in groups and they live up to 25 years on average
  • Family mustelidae – they include several species in palestine and we have two species of badgers and several types of weasels and otters in this family also they live in water – they eat fish and frogs , you can find them in wadi al zarka and in Galilee
  • All mammals started with five toes, but for some mammals started to reduce for example like horses they became one instead of 5 toes, for rhinoceros they became 3 , Hippopotamus on four , on deer,sheep and cows for example they have 2 toes
  • Order Artiodactyla – two toes, the Bovidaee family , Gazella ‘s and Oryx
  • Oryx have been extincted from palestine but Israel Have brought it back from Gulf Area and they are grown back again , Ibex = جدي
  • Gazelle and Ibex have been brought as gifts and have been seen on Egyptian carvings so it date more than 3000 or 4000 B.C.E
  • There is 3 species in Palestine of Gazelle , they are in danger and need to be protected , also it is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible the Gazelle is expressly permitted as food
  • There have been Wild Donkey in Palestine and current domesticated donkey is originally from the Wild One
  • Wild Hare – الارنب البري
  • Pinnipedia like Seals are sea lions , in Palestine only seen in Mediterranean coast
  • Biggest group of mammals we have are the rodenia – قوارض
  • in palestine we have 7 families of rodenia and more than 50 species – النيص منهم
  • Order Rodenia in Palestine there is about 15 speices – جربوع
  • Squirrels have been extincted from Palestine since 150 years ago and they used to be very important and very good for the forest , eco system and biodiversity since they bury the seeds and they go back to tree’s

Summary

We are mammals, we humans are mammals, the animals are much nicer than humans in palestine area, they didn’t kill any humans since the past ten years,

Origins of Humans how we evoloved?
How the Rift vallery Evolved?
How animals were domesticated and when they were domesticated?

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