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Political Science 18-12-2019

The Israeli Bypass Roads in and Around Bethlehem Governorate

The Term Bypass Roads did not come into use until the Signing of Oslo Agreement Between the Israelis and Palestinians in 1993 to indicate Designated Roads for the Israeli Army and Settlers use, to bypass Palestinian Towns and communities in the context of the Israeli Army Redeployment.

Today the Length of the Bypass roads in the West Bank Exceeds 939 Km in length, of which 118 KM run in Bethlehem to Accommodate the Israeli army and settler needs, in addition , Israel plans to Construct a 30 kilometers road ( Bypass Road No.90 ) in Bethlehem Governorate. Once Constructed , it will undermine the Palestinian Urban Expansion in the Eastern Part of the Bethlehem Governorate and will segregate more than one third of the Governorate’s Area.

Prior to the Outbreak of the September 2000 Intifada Palestinians had almost complete access to these bypass roads , except at time when the Israeli Army is on Security Alerts that Palestinians are no longer allowed to Travel on the bypass roads or would have to undergo a through security Check conducted by the Israeli Army Border Patrols, Which would take hours at times.

However, Following the 2000 Intifada, Palestnians Accesses to the Virtually All bypass Roads became Forbidden, unless they are in possession of a special permit issued by the Israeli Civil Administration. Later on the Israeli Army Would refer to Bypass Roads were Palestinians are no longer allowed to travel on a “Sterile” Roads, meaning that these are Palestinian Free Roads.

The Segregation Wall – Bethlehem and the Israeli Segregation Plan

in Bethlehem Governorate , The Segregation Wall Extens across 82 Kilometers starting the eastern rural area North of AL-Khas Village and runs south to Reach Um AL-Qassies Village, it then extends toward the west, bypasses the southern part of Abu Ghneim Mountain North of Beit Sahour, Before it continues northwest of Bethlehem and Beit Jala Cities, and westward to run along bypass road #60 south of Al-Khader Village , it then runs southeast towards Wad AL Nis to encompass Efrat Settlement , After which the route of the segregation wall moves further south and southwest to isolate and segregate the western rural area of bethlehem governorate along with what is known as the gush Etzion Settlements Bloc, Which also include 8 Palestinian Communities ( Population Exceeding 24,200 Palestinians ) within the western segregation Zone that will effectively become inaccessible to other Palestinians who are not residents of these communities.

Another Palestinian Village Stands to Face total isolation but not included within the Western Rural Area, Al-Walajeh village ( Pop 2015 : 2503 ) , which will be enclosed and cut off by the Segregation Wall from all of its sides with a single but guarded and monitored Exist to Access Bethlehem.

The Segregation wall in Bethlehem Governorate will end up amputating some 176,524 Dunums ( 176.5 KM2( of lands behind the wall, and threatens crucial supply areas Containing artesian wells and main water basins that provide bethlehem Governorate with water as the path of the wall is designed to enfold the groundwater locations within Bethlehem Governorate.

Mapping Political Preferences

Each Preference a person or a political party holds is often related to another preference in a clear fashion, for example , if you have preference for increased gender Equality you are likely to also have a preference for increased minority rights, similarly, if you have a preference for a strong private sectory, you are probably sceptical towards government regulation of markets, as we have just seen, it is precisely because of the close relationship between different preferences that people like dalton argue we can group them together and summarise them in a single dimension, such as the left-right, such a dimension is both highly durable and near universal, in Contrast , Benoit and Laver were cautious of oversimplifying too much a speople understand the left-right dimension to mean very different thigns in different contexts , in order to counter this tendency of oversimplification, but at the same time to allow us to summarise preferences in a manageable fashion, most modern political scientists think in terms of two distinct dimensions that are not necessarily related to each other.

The First Dimension we can think of as an Economic Left-Right Dimension .
This Dimension is concered with how far the state or the political majority should intervene in the economic freedoms of its citizens, it is comprised of issues such as attitudes towards the welfare State, Taxation and market regulation, where the left believes the majority should intervene while the right belive that the majority should not be able to intervene.

The Second Dimension is a Social Left-Right Dimension. This concered with how far the state or the political majority should intervene in the social freedoms of its Citizens, it is comprised of issues such as minority rights, lifestyle choices and post-material issues. here the left tends to advocate the belief that the majority should not intervene in the social freedoms of its citizens while the right is more in favour of social interventions, as such, the degree of intervention advocated by a perosn who places themselves on the left of a left-right dimension will depend on whether they are considering the economic or the social dimension, therefore, these two dimensions cut across each other rather than lying on top of each other.

Liberalism First Emerged in the Nineteenth Century and was in Favour of Extending Social freedoms to Greater proportions of Society and Also extending Economic freedoms.

Conservatsim in many respects evolved as a defece against the threat of Liberalsim to the Social power of Traditional authorities such as the Chruch and the Aristocracy as such, it was in favour of Intervening in Citizens lives socially, but it had common ground on the economic dimension with Liberalsim, given the hitherto agreemetn on the economic Dimension Between Liberalsim and conservatsim, the emergence of socialism was the first time that the economic dimension became activated as a source of political contestation.

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